Skip to main content
Site maintenance Tuesday, May 28, 2024. Please note that new registrations and purchases will be unavailable on this date.
Brief Communications
July 26, 2004

Prevalence of migraine on each day of the natural menstrual cycle


Diary data from 155 women were analyzed using within-woman analysis. Compared with all other times of the cycle, migraine was 1.7 times more likely to occur during the 2 days before menstruation and 2.1 times more likely to be severe and 2.5 times more likely to occur during the first 3 days of menstruation and 3.4 times more likely to be severe. This confirms that migraine at menstruation is different from nonmenstrual attacks, even within individuals.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.


Couturier E, Bomhof M, Knuistingh Neven A, van Duijn N. Menstrual migraine in a representative Dutch population sample: prevalence, disability and treatment. Cephalalgia. 2003; 23: 302–308.
Gross M, Barrie M, Bates D, Dowson A, Elrington G. The efficacy of sumatriptan in menstrual migraine. Eur J Neurol. 1995; 2: 144–145.
Visser W, Jaspers N, de Vriend R, Ferrari MD. Risk factors for headache recurrence after sumatriptan: a study in 366 migraine patients. Cephalalgia. 1996; 16: 264–269.
Waters W, O’Connor P. Epidemiology of headache and migraine in women. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1971; 34: 148–153.
Dalton K. Progesterone suppositories and pessaries in the treatment of menstrual migraine. Headache. 1973; 13: 151–159.
MacGregor EA, Chia H, Vohrah RC, Wilkinson M. Migraine and menstruation: a pilot study. Cephalalgia. 1990; 10: 305–310.
Johannes C, Linet M, Stewart W, Celentano D, Lipton R, Szklo M. Relationship of headache to the phase of the menstrual cycle among young women: a daily diary study. Neurology. 1995; 45: 1076–1082.
Stewart W, Lipton R, Chee E, Sawyer J, Silberstein S. Menstrual cycle and headache in a population sample of migraineurs. Neurology. 2000; 55: 1517–1523.
Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The International Classification of Headache Disorders (2nd edition). Cephalalgia. 2004; 24: 1–151.
Martin D, Austin H. An exact method for meta-analysis of case-control and follow-up studies. Epidemiology. 2000; 11: 255–260.

Information & Authors


Published In

Volume 63Number 2July 27, 2004
Pages: 351-353
PubMed: 15277635

Publication History

Received: January 8, 2004
Accepted: March 2, 2004
Published online: July 26, 2004
Published in print: July 27, 2004


Request permissions for this article.


Affiliations & Disclosures

E. Anne MacGregor, MFFP
From the City of London Migraine Clinic and Departments of Gynaecology and Sexual Health (Dr. MacGregor), St. Bartholomew’s Hospital; and Cancer Research UK and University College London Cancer Trials Centre (A. Hackshaw), UK.
Allan Hackshaw, MSc
From the City of London Migraine Clinic and Departments of Gynaecology and Sexual Health (Dr. MacGregor), St. Bartholomew’s Hospital; and Cancer Research UK and University College London Cancer Trials Centre (A. Hackshaw), UK.


Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. E.A. MacGregor, City of London Migraine Clinic, 22 Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6DX, UK.

Metrics & Citations



Download Citations

If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Select your manager software from the list below and click Download.

Cited By
  1. The Role of Female Reproductive Hormones in the Association between Migraine and Breast Cancer: An Unanswered Question, Biomedicines, 11, 6, (1613), (2023).
  2. Migraine with and without aura in relation to the menstrual cycle and other hormonal milestones: A prospective cohort study, Cephalalgia, 43, 6, (033310242311643), (2023).
  3. Sex differences in migraine attack characteristics: A longitudinal E‐diary study, Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 63, 3, (333-341), (2023).
  4. Making migraine easier to stomach: the role of the gut−brain−immune axis in headache disorders, European Journal of Neurology, 30, 11, (3605-3621), (2023).
  5. Current and emerging pharmacotherapy for menstrual migraine: a narrative review, Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 24, 5, (617-627), (2023).
  6. Progesterone Receptor Activation Regulates Sensory Sensitivity and Migraine Susceptibility, The Journal of Pain, (2023).
  7. Population-Based Characterization of Menstrual Migraine and Proposed Diagnostic Criteria, JAMA Network Open, 6, 5, (e2313235), (2023).
  8. Genetics of menstrual migraine and their association with female hormonal factors, Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 25, 3, (383), (2022).
  9. Role of Estrogens in Menstrual Migraine, Cells, 11, 8, (1355), (2022).
  10. Efficacy of lasmiditan for the acute treatment of perimenstrual migraine, Cephalalgia, 42, 14, (1467-1475), (2022).
  11. See more

View Options

Get Access

Login options

Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution to get full access on this article.

Personal login Institutional Login
Purchase Options

Purchase this article to get full access to it.

Purchase Access, $39 for 24hr of access

View options

Full Text

View Full Text

Full Text HTML

View Full Text HTML







Share article link