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Abstract

Background and Objectives

The NIH Toolbox® for the Assessment of Neurologic and Behavioral Function is a compilation of computerized measures designed to assess sensory, motor, emotional, and cognitive functioning of individuals across the life span. The NIH Toolbox was initially developed for use with the general population and was not originally validated in clinical populations. The objective of this scoping review was to assess the extent to which the NIH Toolbox has been used with clinical populations.

Methods

Guided by the Joanna Briggs Methods Manual for Scoping Reviews, records were identified through searches of PubMed MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials.gov, EMBASE, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global (2008–2020). Database searches yielded 5,693 unique titles of original research that used at least one NIH Toolbox assessment in a sample characterized by any clinical diagnosis. Two reviewers screened titles, abstracts, and full texts for inclusion in duplicate. Conflicts at each stage of the review process were resolved by a group discussion.

Results

Ultimately, 281 publication records were included in this scoping review (nJournal Articles = 104, nConference Abstracts = 84, nClinical Trial Registrations = 86, and nTheses/Dissertations = 7). The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery was by far the most used of the 4 batteries in the measurement system (nCognition = 225, nEmotion = 49, nMotor = 29, and nSensation = 16). The most represented clinical category was neurologic disorders (n = 111), followed by psychological disorders (n = 39) and cancer (n = 31). Most (96.8%) of the journal articles and conference abstracts reporting the use of NIH Toolbox measures with clinical samples were published in 2015 or later. As of May 2021, these records had been cited a total of nearly 1,000 times.

Discussion

The NIH Toolbox measures have been widely used among individuals with various clinical conditions across the life span. Our results lay the groundwork to support the feasibility and utility of administering the NIH Toolbox measures in research conducted with clinical populations and further suggest that these measures may be of value for implementation in fast-paced clinical settings as part of routine practice.

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology® Clinical Practice
Volume 12Number 4August 2022
Pages: 307-319

Publication History

Received: November 15, 2021
Accepted: May 10, 2022
Published online: July 5, 2022
Published in print: August 2022

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Disclosure

The authors report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. Full disclosure form information provided by the authors is available with the full text of this article at Neurology.org/cp.

Study Funding

This project was funded in part with Federal funds from the National Institute on Aging under grant number U2CAG057441 and The Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) program, Office of the Director, NIH, under award number U24OD023319. Dr. Rina S. Fox was supported by the National Cancer Institute under grant number K08CA247973.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Rina S. Fox, PhD, MPH*
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
National Cancer Institute, grant #K08CA247973, 2021-2022
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
University of Arizona
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
American Cancer Society
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Manrui Zhang, MPH, MSW*
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Saki Amagai, BA
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Adrianna Bassard, MS
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Elizabeth M. Dworak, MA
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Y. Catherine Han, MS
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) Sponsor/funding source: National Institute of Health/NRSA T32, grant number: NS047987, role: trainee, year(s): 2 years
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Jessica Kassanits, BS
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Corinne H. Miller, MLIS
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Cindy J. Nowinski, MD, PhD
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Synlogic
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Frontiers in Pediatrics, Guest Co-Editor – Special Research Topic: Outcome Assessments for Longitudinal Studies in Pediatric Research, 2020-current Quality of Life Research, Associate Editor, 2018-2021
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
EMD Serono, Speaker at single online event
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
1) EMD Serono 2) Vibrent
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
1) NIH, R01AG074245, PI, 7/1/2021-6/30/2026; R01AG069762, co-I, 9/30/2020-5/31/2025; 75N94019D00005, co-I, 9/20/2019- 9/26/2022; U2CAG060426, co-I, 9/15/2018-5/31/2023; U2CAG057441, co-I, 9/30/17-4/30/22; UG3NS105562, co-I,9/25/2017-8/31/2022 2) Food and Drug Administration, UG3FD006794, co-I, 9/10/19-8/31/24
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Amy K. Giella, BA
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Jordan N. Stoeger, MEd
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
(1) Data Recognition Corporation, Psychometrician - Licensure & Certification, 1
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Kathleen Swantek, MLS
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Julie N. Hook, PhD, MBA
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
P30AR07257901 (Sharma) 09/01/2017 – 08/31/22 0.84 calendar NIH/ NIAMS. Core Center for Clinical Research at Northwestern University The purpose of this project is to accelerate and enhance funded research, by improving efficiency, cost- effectiveness, productivity, collaboration, rigor, and impact; catalyze and add value to all relevant research at NU; and promote new research, by expanding the community working in the areas of our mission and by expanding research fields within the mission. U24OD023319 (Gershon & Cella) 09/21/2016 – 08/31/2019 6.0 calendar NIH/Office of the Director ECHO PRO Research Resource: A Developmentally-based Measurement Science Framework for Assessing Environmental Exposure and Child Health Negative environmental exposures can have a profoundly adverse effect upon the health of children. The overall objective of the ECHO consortium is to capture this adverse impact of early environmental exposures children's health by bringing together several existing studies of the influence of the environment on prenatal, postnatal and early childhood health. U2CAG057441 (Gershon & Weintraub) 05/01/2018 – 04/30/2020 2.4 calendar NIH/NIA ARMADA: Advancing Reliable Measurement in Alzheimer's Disease and cognitive Aging Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's Disease, both associated with advancing age over 65, are increasing in the US due to the reduction of other illnesses that, in the past, limited life expectancy. This project will provide a brief, comprehensive assessment tool (in English and Spanish versions), applicable to diverse populations, to screen for a decline in cognitive health and associated neurological functions. The burden of age-related cognitive decline and dementia on older adults and the health care system make their early identification a critical public health goal in order to pave the way for prevention trials. 3 U2C AG057441-02 (Gershon & Weintraub) 05/01/2019-04/30/2020 2.4 calendar NIH/NIA ARMADA Supplement: Advancing Reliable Measurement in Alzheimer's Disease and cognitive Aging This project will expand the NIH Toolbox (NIHTB) and facilitate the use of the NIHTB in aging research. This supplement will aid in recruitment of additional participants for the study that are needed to validate the tool.
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Richard C. Gershon, PhD
Northwestern University (RSF, MZ, SA, AB, EMD, YCH, JK, CHM, CJN, AKG, JNS, KS, JNH, RCG), Chicago, IL; and University of Arizona (RSF), Tucson.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
American Board of Podiatric Surgery
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Co-Investigator, “Development and Validation of a Telehealth Strategy for Routine Detection of Cognitive Impairment in Primary Care: The MyCog Mobile Assessment” NIA 1R01AG074245-01, 2021-2026. Contact Principal Investigator. ‘ToolBox Detect: Low-Cost Detection of Cognitive Decline in Primary Care Settings.’ NIH-NIA/R01AG06976, 2020-2025. Principal Investigator. ‘NIH Infant and Toddler Toolbox.’ National Institute of Health, NIH-NICHD-CDBB-2019-15, 2019-2024 Contact Principal Investigator. “The Mobile Toolbox for Monitoring Cognitive Function”, NIA/ U2CAG060426, 2018-2023. Contact Principal Investigator. ‘MyCog: Rapid detection of cognitive impairment in everyday clinical settings.’ NINDS/NIA UG3NS105562, 2017-2022. Contact Principal Investigator. ‘Advancing Reliable Measurement in Alzheimer's Disease and cognitive Aging’, NIA/1U2CAG057441, 2017-2022. Contact Principal Investigator. ‘ECHO PRO Research Resource: A Developmentally-based Measurement Science Framework for Assessing Environmental Exposure and Child Health.’ National Institute of Health – NIH 1U24OD023319-01, 2016-2023.
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
American Cancer Society, RSG-01-221-01-PBP, Co-Investigator, 2003-2006
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence Dr. Gershon [email protected]
Funding information and disclosures are provided at the end of the article. Full disclosure form information provided by the authors is available with the full text of this article at Neurology.org/cp.
*
These authors contributed equally to this work.

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  1. Remote Cognitive Screening Of Healthy Older Adults for Primary Care With the MyCog Mobile App: Iterative Design and Usability Evaluation, JMIR Formative Research, 7, (e42416), (2023).https://doi.org/10.2196/42416
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  2. Utility of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery in middle to older aged adults with longstanding type 1 diabetes: The DCCT/EDIC study, The Clinical Neuropsychologist, (1-21), (2023).https://doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2023.2266876
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