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Abstract

Objective:

The AMANDYSK trial was designed to assess long-term efficacy of chronic treatment with amantadine in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID).

Methods:

This was a 3-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, wash-out study conducted in 57 amantadine-treated (≥200 mg/d for ≥6 months) dyskinetic patients with PD. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline in a Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) dyskinesia subscore (items 32 [duration] + 33 [severity]). Secondary outcomes included other LID measurements (“responders” analysis, premature dropout for LID, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale). Exploratory outcomes included time with troublesome dyskinesia as measured by diaries, UPDRS Motor Examination (part III) for motor symptoms of PD, and fatigue and apathy scores for nonmotor symptoms.

Results:

UPDRS items 32 + 33 deteriorated more in patients switched to placebo (“discontinuing” group) (+1.7 ± 2.0 units; 95% confidence interval 0.9, 2.4) as compared with those maintained on amantadine (“continuing” group) (+0.2 ± 1.5 units; 95% confidence interval −0.4, 0.8; p = 0.003). Secondary outcomes confirmed this difference because there were significantly more responders, more dropouts for LID, greater increase in “ON” time with troublesome dyskinesia, and greater worsening of Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale score in the discontinuing group. There were no between-group differences in the UPDRS Motor Examination, whereas apathy (as measured by caregivers) and fatigue scores tended to worsen more in patients randomized to placebo.

Conclusion:

Wash-out of amantadine in dyskinetic patients with PD significantly worsened LID. No significant effect was observed on motor parkinsonian symptoms, while exploratory outcomes suggested that amantadine might improve apathy and fatigue in such patients.

Classification of evidence:

This article provides Class II evidence that in patients with PD, withdrawing amantadine significantly aggravates LID in a median time of 7 days.

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Supplementary Material

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Letters to the Editor
23 May 2014
Response to Dr. Friedman
Fabienne Ory Magne, MD
O. Rascol and F Ory-Magne for the AMANDYSK Study Group

We thank Dr. Friedman for his comments and agree that the differences observed in favor of amantadine in fatigue and apathy scores of the AMANDYSK trial are difficult to interpret and must be taken cautiously. [1] These measurements, although pre-specified, were only exploratory. The study was not powered to assess differences between such outcomes. The placebo and nocebo effects and the evolution of the scores in a wash-out design are still unclear. More patients dropped out prematurely because of the worsening of dyskinesia in the group switched to placebo versus those remaining on amantadine. Any interpretation is then quite speculative. In spite of these limitations, amantadine has been reported to have potentially positive effects on fatigue and apathy in other neurological disorders. [2,3] Further trials are needed to confirm or invalidate the hypothesis that amantadine could have such a potential beneficial effect in Parkinson disease.

1. Ory-Magne F, Corvol J-C, Azulay J-P, et al. Withdrawing amantadine in dyskinetic patients with Parkinson disease: The AMANDYSK trial. Neurology 2014; 82: 300-307.

2. Krupp LB, Coyle PK, Doscher C, et al. Fatigue therapy in multiple sclerosis: results of a double-blind, randomized, parallel trial of amantadine, pemoline, and placebo. Neurology 1995;45: 1956-1961.

3. Van Reekum R, Bayley M, Garner S, et al. N of 1 study: amantadine for the amotivational syndrome in a patient with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 1995;9:49-53.

For disclosures, contact the editorial office at [email protected].

24 February 2014
Non-motor symptoms in AMANDYSK trial
Joseph H Friedman, Neurologist

I applaud the authors of the AMANDYSK trial and agree that their placebo-controlled withdrawal design supports the anti-dyskinetic effect of amantadine for L-Dopa induced dyskinesias. [1] This design emulates clinical practice, where a drug is routinely tapered and stopped if the benefit is unclear. However, the authors??? deductions on the measured non-motor symptoms are dubious. They couched their interpretation in a "possible" effect of amantadine on fatigue, and state that the "observations should be interpreted cautiously," but a closer look actually underscores the importance of a placebo effect. Subjects whose amantadine was not altered reported an improvement in fatigue, while subjects whose amantadine was discontinued reported a decline. Similarly, the caregiver assessment of apathy worsened off amantadine and improved with its continuation. Even though the worsening could be a reflection of an effect of amantadine withdrawal, it is difficult to imagine either an anti-fatigue or an anti-apathy effect of simply continuing the drug.

1. Ory-Magne F, Corvol J-C, Azulay J-P, et al. Withdrawing amantadine in dyskinetic patients with Parkinson disease: The AMANDYSK trial. Neurology 2014; 82: 300-307.

For disclosures, please contact the editorial office at [email protected].

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 82Number 4January 28, 2014
Pages: 300-307
PubMed: 24371304

Publication History

Received: January 25, 2013
Accepted: September 16, 2013
Published online: December 26, 2013
Published in print: January 28, 2014

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Disclosure

F. Ory-Magne serves on a scientific advisory board for Abbott and received honoraria for lectures from UCB, Medtronic, Novartis, and Boehringer Ingelheim. J.-C. Corvol received academic grants from the Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Inserm, and the Michael J. Fox Foundation, and received honoraria from Lundbeck, Allon Therapeutics, Biogen, Impax laboratory, and Novartis. J.-P. Azulay serves on a scientific advisory board for and received honoraria from UCB, Novartis, Lundbeck, Teva, and Abbott. A.-M. Bonnet reports no disclosures. C. Brefel-Courbon serves on a scientific advisory board for Medtronic, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, Lundbeck, and Novartis. P. Damier serves on the scientific advisory board for Teva and Lundbeck and received honoraria for lecture from Novartis. E. Dellapina reports no disclosures. A. Destée is a consultant for GSK and Lundbeck and serves on a scientific advisory board for Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, GE Healthcare, Lundbeck, and Teva. He received honoraria from MSD, Novartis, Bioprojet, Teva, Lundbeck, Schering-Plough, Boehringer Ingelheim, UCB, Synopsia, and Solvay. He received grants from Lundbeck, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Teva. F. Durif received grants from Novartis, Teva-Lundbeck, and Merz, serves on a scientific advisory board for Novartis, Lundbeck, Allergan, and Aguettant. He is a consultant for Novartis and Lundbeck and receives honoraria from Novartis, Lundbeck, Allergan, Aguettant, and Servier. M. Galitzky and T. Lebouvier report no disclosures. W. Meissner serves on a scientific advisory board for ANM GmbH Germany and Novartis France, received academic grants from the Michael J. Fox Foundation, the European Community, the University Hospital of Bordeaux, the French Ministry of Health, APTES, and PSP-France, unrestricted research grants from Novartis, Teva, and UCB, and travel grants from Lundbeck, Novartis, Teva, and UCB. He received teaching honoraria from GSK, Lundbeck, Novartis, Teva, UCB, and CMA Quebec. C. Thalamas reports no disclosures. F. Tison received academic grants from the PHRC and the Michael J. Fox Foundation, serves on a scientific advisory board for Boehringer Ingelheim France, Novartis Pharma France, and Lundbeck France, and received travel grants from Novartis Pharma France and UCB France. A. Salis and A. Sommet report no disclosures. F. Viallet serves on a scientific advisory board for Novartis and Abbott and received honoraria from Lundbeck, Abbott, and Novartis. M. Vidailhet is a consultant and serves on a scientific advisory board for Novartis and Merz. She received institutional grants from the ANR and the PHRC and from patient associations (France Parkinson, Dystonia Coalition, Essential Tremor APTES, Parkinson). O. Rascol received academic grants from France Parkinson, the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), Toulouse Hospital, the Michael J. Fox Foundation, the Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique (PHRC), and the INSERM-DHOS Recherche Clinique Translationnelle; scientific grants from Boehringer Ingelheim, Lundbeck, Teva, and UCB; he is a consultant for Abbott, Addex, BIAL, Boehringer Ingelheim, Impax Pharmaceuticals, Lundbeck, Merck, Movement Disorders Society, Novartis, Oxford Biomedica, Teva, Schering-Plough, UCB, and XenoPort, and serves on scientific advisory boards for Abbott, Addex, Boehringer Ingelheim, Impax Pharmaceuticals, Lundbeck, Merck, Merz, Novartis, Oxford Biomedica, Teva, Schering-Plough, UCB, and XenoPort. Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures.

Study Funding

Supported by the French government funding of the Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique (PHRC 2006 no. 0600801).

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Fabienne Ory-Magne, MD
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
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Jean-Christophe Corvol, MD, PhD*
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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Jean-Philippe Azulay, MD, PhD**
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Anne-Marie Bonnet, MD
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Christine Brefel-Courbon, MD
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Philippe Damier, MD, PhD**
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Estelle Dellapina, PhD**
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Alain Destée, MD**
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Franck Durif, MD, PhD*
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Monique Galitzky, MD
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Thibaud Lebouvier, MD, PhD
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Wassilios Meissner, MD, PhD**
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Claire Thalamas, MD
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
François Tison, MD, PhD**
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Alexandrine Salis, MSc**
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Agnès Sommet, MD, PhD
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
François Viallet, MD
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Marie Vidailhet, MD, PhD**
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Olivier Rascol, MD, PhD*
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
On behalf of the NS-Park CIC Network
From INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9302 (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., E.D., M.G., C.T., A.S., O.R.), and Department of Neurology (F.O.-M., C.B.-C., O.R.), University Hospital of Toulouse; INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9503 (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), and AP-HP, Department of Neurology (J.-C.C., A.-M.B., M.V.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; CRICM UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975 CNRS UMR7225 (J.-C.C., M.V.), Institut de la Moelle et du Cerveau, Université Pierre Marie Curie Paris-6, Salpêtrière, Paris; AP-HM (J.-P.A.), Department of Neurology, Timone Hospital, Marseille; Department of Clinical Pharmacology (C.B.-C., C.T., A.S., O.R.), University of Medicine, Toulouse; INSERM (C.B.-C., O.R.), and Université de Toulouse, UPS (C.B.-C., O.R.), Imagerie cérébrale et handicaps neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse; Department of Neurology (P.D., T.L.), University Hospital of Nantes; Department of Neurology (A.D.), University Hospital of Lille; Department of Neurology (F.D.), University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand; Department of Neurology (W.M., F.T.), University Hospital of Bordeaux; and Department of Neurology (F.V.), Pays-d’Aix Hospital, Aix-en-Provence, France.

Notes

Correspondence to Prof. Rascol: [email protected]
AMANDYSK Study coinvestigators are listed on the Neurology® Web site at www.neurology.org.
*
NS-Park CIC Network coordinators;
**
NS-Park CIC Network members.
Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

Author Contributions

Study concept and design: Olivier Rascol, Fabienne Ory-Magne, Agnès Sommet, Claire Thalamas, Alexandrine Salis, Jean-Philippe Azulay, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Philippe Damier, Alain Destée, Franck Durif, François Tison, François Viallet, Marie Vidailhet. Acquisition of data: Fabienne Ory-Magne, Jean-Philippe Azulay, Anne-Marie Bonnet, Christine Brefel-Courbon, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Philippe Damier, Alain Destée, Franck Durif, Monique Galitzky, Thibaud Lebouvier, Wassilios Meissner, François Tison, François Viallet, Marie Vidailhet, Olivier Rascol. Analysis and interpretation of data: Fabienne Ory-Magne, Jean-Philippe Azulay, Anne-Marie Bonnet, Christine Brefel-Courbon, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Philippe Damier, Alain Destée, Franck Durif, Monique Galitzky, Thibaud Lebouvier, Wassilios Meissner, François Tison, François Viallet, Marie Vidailhet, Olivier Rascol, Agnès Sommet. Drafting the manuscript: Fabienne Ory-Magne, Olivier Rascol, Agnès Sommet. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jean-Philippe Azulay, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Philippe Damier, Alain Destée, Franck Durif, François Tison, François Viallet, Marie Vidailhet-. Administrative, technical, and material support: Alexandrine Salis. Study supervision: Olivier Rascol and NS-Park CIC Network.

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