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Abstract

Objective:

We aimed to explore factors associated with clinical evaluations for cognitive impairment among older residents of the United States.

Methods:

Two hundred ninety-seven of 845 subjects in the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS), a nationally representative community-based cohort study, met criteria for dementia after a detailed in-person study examination. Informants for these subjects reported whether or not they had ever received a clinical cognitive evaluation outside of the context of ADAMS. Among subjects with dementia, we evaluated demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors associated with an informant-reported clinical cognitive evaluation using bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression.

Results:

Of the 297 participants with dementia in ADAMS, 55.2% (representing about 1.8 million elderly Americans in 2002) reported no history of a clinical cognitive evaluation by a physician. In a multivariable logistic regression model (n = 297) controlling for demographics, physical function measures, and dementia severity, marital status (odds ratio for currently married: 2.63 [95% confidence interval: 1.10–6.35]) was the only significant independent predictor of receiving a clinical cognitive evaluation among subjects with study-confirmed dementia.

Conclusions:

Many elderly individuals with dementia do not receive clinical cognitive evaluations. The likelihood of receiving a clinical cognitive evaluation in elderly individuals with dementia associates with certain patient-specific factors, particularly severity of cognitive impairment and current marital status.

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Supplementary Material

File (1.6.15_factors_associated_with_cognitive.pdf)

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 84Number 1January 6, 2015
Pages: 64-71
PubMed: 25428689

Publication History

Received: May 8, 2014
Accepted: September 15, 2014
Published online: November 26, 2014
Published in print: January 6, 2015

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Disclosure

V. Kotagal: research funding through the American Academy of Neurology Clinical Research Training Fellowship and the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation. K. Langa and B. Plassman report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. G. Fisher: supported by NIH/NIA (R01 AG027010, U01 AG009740, and R37 R37 AG007137). B. Giordani, R. Wallace, and J. Burke report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. D. Steffens: research support from the National Institute of Mental Health. M. Kabeto reports no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. R. Albin: research support from the NIH and the VA. Dr. Albin has received compensation for expert witness testimony in litigation regarding dopamine agonist–induced impulse control disorders. Dr. Albin serves on the editorial boards of Neurology®, Experimental Neurology, and Neurobiology of Disease and has served on the Data Safety and Monitoring Boards for the QE3 and HORIZON trials. N. Foster: receives a salary from the University of Utah as a faculty member through reimbursed clinical services, and for administrative and teaching activities. He provides unpaid services to the Alzheimer's Association, the American Academy of Neurology, the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, as a member of the Utah State Plan Task Force, the Working Interdisciplinary Network of Guardianship Stakeholders, and a number of other community organizations. Dr. Foster has received personal compensation from Bristol-Myers Squibb, GE Healthcare, the National Association for Continuing Education, and Sanofi for consulting activities. Dr. Foster has received research support for clinical trials from GE Healthcare, the Center for Health Improvement, Merck, and Lilly. Dr. Foster also has received research support within the past year from the NIH, and the Veterans Affairs Office of Rural Health. He is CEO and co-owner of Proactive Memory Services, Inc., a University of Utah for-profit startup company developing a mobile application to improve the quality of care for cognitive concerns. Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures.

Study Funding

The Health and Retirement Study is conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, with funding from the National Institute on Aging (U01 AG009740). Additional support was provided by the University of Utah Center for Alzheimer's Care, Imaging and Research.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Vikas Kotagal, MD, MS
From the Departments of Neurology (V.K., B.J.G., R.L.A.), Internal Medicine (K.M.L., M.K.), Psychiatry (B.J.G.), and Psychology (B.J.G.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Departments of Psychiatry (B.L.P.) and Neurology (J.R.B.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Department of Psychology (G.G.F.), Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Department of Epidemiology (R.B.W.), University of Iowa, Iowa City; Department of Psychiatry (D.C.S.), University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington; and Department of Neurology (N.L.F.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Research support from the American Academy of Neurology Clinical Research Training Fellowship and the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Kenneth M. Langa, MD, PhD
From the Departments of Neurology (V.K., B.J.G., R.L.A.), Internal Medicine (K.M.L., M.K.), Psychiatry (B.J.G.), and Psychology (B.J.G.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Departments of Psychiatry (B.L.P.) and Neurology (J.R.B.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Department of Psychology (G.G.F.), Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Department of Epidemiology (R.B.W.), University of Iowa, Iowa City; Department of Psychiatry (D.C.S.), University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington; and Department of Neurology (N.L.F.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) NIA U01 AG09740, Co-I, 2009-2013; (2) NIA R01 AG030155, Co-I, 2009-2013
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Brenda L. Plassman, PhD
From the Departments of Neurology (V.K., B.J.G., R.L.A.), Internal Medicine (K.M.L., M.K.), Psychiatry (B.J.G.), and Psychology (B.J.G.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Departments of Psychiatry (B.L.P.) and Neurology (J.R.B.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Department of Psychology (G.G.F.), Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Department of Epidemiology (R.B.W.), University of Iowa, Iowa City; Department of Psychiatry (D.C.S.), University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington; and Department of Neurology (N.L.F.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Zinfandel Pharmaceuticals
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NIH/NIDCR, R01 DE019110, Investigator, 4/09-4/14
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Gwenith G. Fisher, PhD
From the Departments of Neurology (V.K., B.J.G., R.L.A.), Internal Medicine (K.M.L., M.K.), Psychiatry (B.J.G.), and Psychology (B.J.G.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Departments of Psychiatry (B.L.P.) and Neurology (J.R.B.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Department of Psychology (G.G.F.), Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Department of Epidemiology (R.B.W.), University of Iowa, Iowa City; Department of Psychiatry (D.C.S.), University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington; and Department of Neurology (N.L.F.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Dr. Fisher serves on (1) the editorial board of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (2013-present), (2) the editorial board of Work Aging, and Retirement (2013-present), and (3) the editorial board of Journal of Business and Psychology (2014-present).
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Dr. Fisher provided consulting services in the form of data analysis, interpretation, and report writing for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) NIOSH/Mountain and Plains Education and Research Center, T42OH009229, Occupational Health Psychology Training Director, 2013-present, (2) NIOSH/CDC, Contract #254‐2010‐M‐37002, Principal Investigator, 2011-2013, (3) NIH/NIA, R37AG007137, Co-PI, 2005-2016, (4) NIH/NIA, U01 AG009740, Research Scientist, 2001-2013, (5) NIH/NIA, R03 AG042919, Co-PI, 2012-2014,
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
Dr. Fisher was employed as an Associate Research Scientist at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan until August, 2013. She is currently Assistant Professor of Psychology at Colorado State University (August, 2013-present) and Faculty Associate at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Bruno J. Giordani, PhD
From the Departments of Neurology (V.K., B.J.G., R.L.A.), Internal Medicine (K.M.L., M.K.), Psychiatry (B.J.G.), and Psychology (B.J.G.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Departments of Psychiatry (B.L.P.) and Neurology (J.R.B.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Department of Psychology (G.G.F.), Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Department of Epidemiology (R.B.W.), University of Iowa, Iowa City; Department of Psychiatry (D.C.S.), University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington; and Department of Neurology (N.L.F.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
Book published by Springer Press: Neuropsychology of Children in Africa. Published one year ago, with royalties paid of $141.00.
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Boivin (PI) 04/01/11 ? 1/31/16 0.78 Cal Mths Michigan State University / NIH-NHLBI $15,822 annual directs/subcontract Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation in Ugandan Children after Severe Malaria This study investigates the utility of computerized cognitive rehabilitation training in children who have survived cerebral malaria with training aimed at specific cognitive domains our earlier longitudinal studies have identified. Role: Co-I. R01HL105999 Chervin (PI) 12/01/11 ? 11/30/16 0.6 Cal Mths NIH $455,318 annual directs Sleep-Disordered Breathing and CPAP after Adenotonsillectomy in Children This study evaluates the utility of CPAP treatment in children following tonsillectomy with particular reference to cognitive and behavioral features and linkages to newer neurophysiological assessment techniques. Role: Co-I R01 Lozoff (PI) 7/16/12 ? 6/30/17 0.24 Cal Mths NIH $408,874 annual directs Neuromaturational Delays in Iron Deficient Anemic Infants This study will determine long-term neurobiological effects of IDA in infancy, adult functional outcomes related to preventing IDA in infancy, and long-term effects of giving iron to iron-sufficient infants. Role: Co-I R34MH084782 (Boivin) 04/01/2010-03/31/2013 (NCTX 3/31/14) NIH/NIMH Neuropsychological Benefits of Cognitive Training in Ugandan HIV Children. This study will evaluate the neuropsychological benefits of computerized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CCRT) for Ugandan school children with HIV. Role: Co-I P01NS015655 Frey (PI) 9/15/08 - 6/30/13 (NCTX 6/30/14) NIH/NINDS NCTX 7/31/13PET Study of Biochemistry and Metabolism of the CNS Evaluation of behavioral, sleep, cognitive, and other non- motorized factors associated with Parkinson?s Disease in relation to PET markers out of CNS functioning. Role: Co-I U01HL083219 Ellenberg (PI) 09/25/06 ? 07/31/11 (NCTX 7/31/13) NIH/NHLBI A Randomized Controlled Study of Adenotonsillectomy for Childhood Sleep Apnea A controlled study with sufficient representation of ethnic minorities and comprehensive follow-up to address the role of treatment in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and the potential differential effectiveness among obese children and ethnic minorities. Role: Director of Neuropsychology Assessment and Quality Assurance Core. ADC-030-HBA Weintraub (PI) / Giordani (UM PI) 09/01/07 ? 12/31/12 NIH/NIA (Alzheimer?s Disease Cooperative Study) Multi-Center Trial to Evaluate Home-Based Assessment Methods for Alzheimer?s Disease Prevention Research in People Over 75 Years Old. Role: UM Principal Investigator 2P50 AG008671-16A1 NIH/NIA Gilman (PI) 06/01/05 ? 5/31/11 Michigan Alzheimer's Disease Research Center The major goal of this renewal is the study of the pathophysiologies of early cognitive manifestations of Alzheimer?s disease, emphasizing patients with mild cognitive impairment and very mild Alzheimer?s disease. Role: Associate Director: Center; Director: Clinical Core; Investigator: Projects 2 and 3 5T32HD07422 NICHD/NIH Tate (PI) 05/1/06-4/30/11 The U-M Medical Rehabilitation Research Training Program The purpose of this program is to provide at least two years of research training in medical rehabilitation to post-doctoral fellows in the disciplines of physiatry, psychology, rehabilitation engineering, neurophysiology, biomechanics and other related fields. Role: Director, Neuropsychology Training Core
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Pressler (PI) 7/1/12 ? 6/30/17 0.6 Cal Mths The Rita and Alex Hillman Foundation $591,425 annual directs Effectiveness and Implementation Science for Health Promotion and Chronic Illness Care in Vulnerable Populations This study will prepare the next generation of nurse scholars to lead health care reform. We plan to develop and evaluate a new 3-year PhD program focused on the substantive science areas of health promotion and chronic illness care in vulnerable populations and on intervention research that spans efficacy to effectiveness research and implementation science.
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Robert B. Wallace, MD, MS
From the Departments of Neurology (V.K., B.J.G., R.L.A.), Internal Medicine (K.M.L., M.K.), Psychiatry (B.J.G.), and Psychology (B.J.G.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Departments of Psychiatry (B.L.P.) and Neurology (J.R.B.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Department of Psychology (G.G.F.), Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Department of Epidemiology (R.B.W.), University of Iowa, Iowa City; Department of Psychiatry (D.C.S.), University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington; and Department of Neurology (N.L.F.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Merck and Co.: Clinical trial safety monitoring Novartis Pharm: Clinical trial safety monitoring
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
National Institutes of Health
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
University of Texas at Austin University of Texas Galveston University of Michigan
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
James R. Burke, MD, PhD
From the Departments of Neurology (V.K., B.J.G., R.L.A.), Internal Medicine (K.M.L., M.K.), Psychiatry (B.J.G.), and Psychology (B.J.G.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Departments of Psychiatry (B.L.P.) and Neurology (J.R.B.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Department of Psychology (G.G.F.), Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Department of Epidemiology (R.B.W.), University of Iowa, Iowa City; Department of Psychiatry (D.C.S.), University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington; and Department of Neurology (N.L.F.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
David C. Steffens, MD, MHS
From the Departments of Neurology (V.K., B.J.G., R.L.A.), Internal Medicine (K.M.L., M.K.), Psychiatry (B.J.G.), and Psychology (B.J.G.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Departments of Psychiatry (B.L.P.) and Neurology (J.R.B.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Department of Psychology (G.G.F.), Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Department of Epidemiology (R.B.W.), University of Iowa, Iowa City; Department of Psychiatry (D.C.S.), University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington; and Department of Neurology (N.L.F.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
International Psychogeriatrics, Editorial Board two years
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
(1) The American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry, APPI, published in 2009
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NIMH grants R01 MH054846, R01 MH096725, and K24 MH070027
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Mohammed Kabeto, MS
From the Departments of Neurology (V.K., B.J.G., R.L.A.), Internal Medicine (K.M.L., M.K.), Psychiatry (B.J.G.), and Psychology (B.J.G.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Departments of Psychiatry (B.L.P.) and Neurology (J.R.B.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Department of Psychology (G.G.F.), Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Department of Epidemiology (R.B.W.), University of Iowa, Iowa City; Department of Psychiatry (D.C.S.), University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington; and Department of Neurology (N.L.F.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Roger L. Albin, MD
From the Departments of Neurology (V.K., B.J.G., R.L.A.), Internal Medicine (K.M.L., M.K.), Psychiatry (B.J.G.), and Psychology (B.J.G.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Departments of Psychiatry (B.L.P.) and Neurology (J.R.B.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Department of Psychology (G.G.F.), Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Department of Epidemiology (R.B.W.), University of Iowa, Iowa City; Department of Psychiatry (D.C.S.), University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington; and Department of Neurology (N.L.F.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Teva, Serving on DSMB for HD-PRIDE study.
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Travel expenses reimbursed by Parkinson Study Group, Hereditary Disease Foundation.
Editorial Boards:
1.
(1) Neurology - Editorial Board, 9 years; (2) Experimental Neurology - Editorial Board, 15 years; (3) Neurobiology of Disease - Editorial Board, 8 years.
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
CHDI Foundation Roger L. Albin, M.D, Principal Investigator P75 Neurotrophin Receptor Signaling in Huntington?s Disease Project Period: 09/01/12 ? 08/31/14 National Institutes of Health R01 NS070856; Nic Bohnen, MD, Principal Investigator Hyposmia, Cholinergic Denervation and Incipient Cognitive Decline in PD Project Period: 09/15/2010 ? 07/31/2015 Role: co-PI National Institutes of Health T32 NS007222; Eva L. Feldman, MD, PhD, Principal Investigator Training in Clinical and Basic Neurosciences Project Period: 07/01/2012 ? 06/30/2017 Role: co-PI Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson?s Research Nic Bohnen, MD, Principal Investigator The Role of Aβ in the Progression of Cognitive Impairment in PD: A Prospective Cohort Study Project Period: 02/01/13 - 01/31/18 Role: co-Investigator Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson?s Research Martijn Muller, PhD, Principal Investigator [18F]flubatine: a Novel Biomarker of Cholinergic α4β2 Nicotinic Receptors and Cognition in Parkinson?s Disease Project Period: 12/01/13 - 12/31/15 Role: co-Investigator National Institutes of Health K08 NS072183; Daniel K. Leventhal, MD, PhD, Principal Investigator Neuronal Oscillations and Dysregulated Motor Learning in Parkinsonian Rats Project Period: 05/01/2013 ? 04/30/2018 Role: co-Investigator National Institutes of Health R21 NS088302 Roger L. Albin, MD, Principal Investigator Cholinergic Interneurons in Tourette Syndrome 6/1/14-5/30/16 National Institutes of Health R25 Roger L. Albin, MD, Principal Investigator University of Michigan Clinical Neuroscientist Training Program (UMCNTP) Project Period: 09/01/14 ? 08/31/19
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
Goran, Lucow, Miller; medicolegal consulting; 2013-2014 Johnson & Wyngaarden; medicolegal consulting; 2012-2014
Norman L. Foster, MD
From the Departments of Neurology (V.K., B.J.G., R.L.A.), Internal Medicine (K.M.L., M.K.), Psychiatry (B.J.G.), and Psychology (B.J.G.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Departments of Psychiatry (B.L.P.) and Neurology (J.R.B.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Department of Psychology (G.G.F.), Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Department of Epidemiology (R.B.W.), University of Iowa, Iowa City; Department of Psychiatry (D.C.S.), University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington; and Department of Neurology (N.L.F.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
(1) Bristol-Myers Squibb: Diagnostic Adjudication Committee member (2) PAMS, Inc. Co-Owner and Employee (3) GE Healthcare ad hoc consultant (4) Piramal ad hoc consultant (5) Sanofi Interviewee (6) Lilly USA, LLC Ethics Advisory Board Member
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) Human Amyloid Imaging travel reimbursement (2) Alzheimer's Association travel reimbursement (3) American Academy of Neurology honorarium (4) Society or Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging travel reimbursement (5) National Association for Continuing Education (Honorarium and travel reimbursement) (6) Bristol-Myers Squibb travel reimbursement (7) American Federation for Aging Research
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
(1) GE Healthcare (2) Piramal
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
(1) Baxter Bioscience/ADCS, Co-investigator, 2008-13 (2) Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy, Co-PI, 2008-13 (3) Eisai / ICON, site co-investigator, 2007-10 (4) GE Healthcare, 18F-39-F-6-OH-BTA1, Co-PI, 2011-14
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) Northern CA INST Research, AG024904-06, PI, 2012-15 (2) STTR, 1R41AG044147-01, Co-PI, 2012-13 (3) University of Utah, Co-investigator, 2011-12 (4) VA ORH, VISN 19-660, Project Director, 2013-14 (5) ADCS, CERE-110, Co-investigator (6) ADNI, AG024904-06, PI, 2012-15
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
(1) ADCS/University of California San Diego, ADC030, site co- investigator, 2008-12, (2) University of Pennsylvania, principal investigator, 2005- 09
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence to Dr. Kotagal: [email protected]
Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

Author Contributions

Vikas Kotagal: drafting/revising the manuscript, study concept or design, analysis or interpretation of data, accepts responsibility for conduct of research and will give final approval, statistical analysis. Kenneth M. Langa: drafting/revising the manuscript, study concept or design, analysis or interpretation of data, accepts responsibility for conduct of research and will give final approval, acquisition of data. Brenda L. Plassman: drafting/revising the manuscript, accepts responsibility for conduct of research and will give final approval, acquisition of data. Gwenith G. Fisher: drafting/revising the manuscript, analysis or interpretation of data, accepts responsibility for conduct of research and will give final approval, acquisition of data, study supervision. Bruno J. Giordani: drafting/revising the manuscript, study concept or design, analysis or interpretation of data, accepts responsibility for conduct of research and will give final approval, acquisition of data. Robert B. Wallace: analysis or interpretation of data, accepts responsibility for conduct of research and will give final approval, acquisition of data, obtaining funding. James R. Burke: drafting/revising the manuscript, accepts responsibility for conduct of research and will give final approval, acquisition of data. David C. Steffens: drafting/revising the manuscript, accepts responsibility for conduct of research and will give final approval. Mohammed Kabeto: analysis or interpretation of data, accepts responsibility for conduct of research and will give final approval, acquisition of data, statistical analysis. Roger L. Albin: drafting/revising the manuscript, accepts responsibility for conduct of research and will give final approval. Norman L. Foster: drafting/revising the manuscript, study concept or design, analysis or interpretation of data, accepts responsibility for conduct of research and will give final approval, acquisition of data.

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