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Abstract

Objectives:

In a large family of Algerian origin, we aimed to identify the genetic mutation segregating with simultaneous presence of adult-onset, paucisymptomatic, slowly progressive, cerebellar ataxia in 7 adults and congenital ataxia in 1 child, and then to assess the involvement of GRID2 mutations in 144 patients with congenital cerebellar ataxia.

Methods:

We used a combined approach of linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing in one family, and a targeted gene panel sequencing approach in 144 congenital ataxias.

Results:

In the large family with spinocerebellar ataxia, we identified a missense mutation (c.1966C>G/p.Leu656Val) in the GRID2 gene, in a heterozygous state in adults, and in a homozygous state in one child with congenital ataxia, compatible with a semidominant transmission pattern. In 144 patients affected with congenital ataxia, we identified 2 missense de novo GRID2 mutations in 2 children (c.1960G>A/p.Ala654Thr, c.1961C>A/p.Ala654Asp). They affect the same amino acid as the previously described Lurcher mutation in mice; the variant in the large family concerns a nearby amino acid.

Conclusions:

In humans, GRID2 had only been involved in ataxia through complete loss-of-function mutations due to exon deletions. We report the first point mutations in this gene, with putative gain-of-function mechanisms, and a semidominant transmission as was observed in the Lurcher mice model. Of note, cerebellar ataxia is the core phenotype, but with variable severity ranging from very mild adult-onset to congenital-onset ataxias linked to both the heterozygous and homozygous state of the variant, and the position of the mutation.

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Supplementary Material

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 84Number 17April 28, 2015
Pages: 1751-1759
PubMed: 25841024

Publication History

Received: October 9, 2014
Accepted: January 21, 2015
Published online: April 3, 2015
Published in print: April 28, 2015

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Disclosure

The authors report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures.

Study Funding

This work was financially supported by the French National Agency for Research (ANR), the French Ministry of Health (PHRC 2009, AOM 09178), the Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), the Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 06, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), the European Union (Omics call: NEUROMICS), the Verum Foundation (Germany), the Fondation Roger de Spoelberch (Switzerland), the Association Connaitre les syndromes cérébelleux and the program Investissements d'avenir ANR-10-IAIHU-06.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Marie Coutelier, MD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS) : aspirant fellowship, 2012-2016
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Lydie Burglen, MD, PhD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Minist?re de la Sant?, PHRC AOM09178, 2009
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Association Connaitre les syndromes c?r?belleux
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Emeline Mundwiller
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Myriam Abada-Bendib, MD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Diana Rodriguez, MD, PhD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Sandra Chantot-Bastaraud, MD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Christelle Rougeot, MD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Marie-Anne Cournelle, MD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Mathieu Milh, MD, PhD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Annick Toutain, MD, PhD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Delphine Bacq
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Vincent Meyer
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Alexandra Afenjar, MD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Jean-François Deleuze, PhD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
1) Polymorphism in VEGF tp predict response to anti VEGF therapy 2) Signature of pluripotency
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Labex GenMed from French ANR
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Alexis Brice, MD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Wolfson Foundation as a member of the scientific advisory board
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
honoraria from Lundbeck for giving a talk.
Editorial Boards:
1.
(1) The Lancet Neurology (2003-2010); (2) Brain (2007- 2013); (3) Human Molecular Genetics (2005-2012); (4) Neurodegenerative Diseases (2003-); (5) Neurogenetics (2001-); (6) Journal of Neurology (1998-2003); (7) European Neurology (1998-2009); (8) Neuromuscular Disorders (1998-2000); (9) The Cerebellum (2001-); (10) La Revue Neurologique (1997-2005); (11) Parkinsonism and Related Disorders (2008-); (12) Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience (2012-)
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) French Agency for Research; (2) Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique; (3) Michael J. Fox Foundation; (4) French Association Against Myopathies; (5) European Union; (6) the program ?Investissements d?avenir? ANR-10-IAIHU- 06; (7) The Verum Foundation; (8) France-Alzheimer association
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Delphine Héron, MD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Giovanni Stevanin, PhD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
1) Diagnosis of hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) by identification of a mutation in the KIAA1840 gene or protein. National submission by INSERM Transfert September 11, 2006. International extension September 11 2007; demand n? PCT/IB2007/003535, publication n? WO/2008/032218 dated March 20 2008 (filed). 2)Diagnosis of hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) by identification of a mutation in the ZFYVE26 gene or protein. National submission by INSERM Transfert April 2 2008. International extension March 31 2009, demand n? PCT/EP2009/053838 (filed).
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) the 7th framework program of the European Union (FP7, E12009DD, Neuromics, 2013-2017, role= participant), (1) French Agency for Research (grant SPATAX-QUEST, to GS)
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
(1) French National Agency for Research (project SPG11, coordinator: 2007-2011; project LIGENAX, co-coordinator: 2010-2013), (2) the program ?Investissements d?avenir? ANR-10-IAIHU-06 (role participant, 2012-2022)
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
(1) GIS-Rare diseases Institute, (2) Association Fran?aise contre les Myopathies (grant LIGENAX, role=participant)
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Alexandra Durr, MD, PhD
From Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), ICM, Paris; CNRS (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UMR 7225, Paris; Sorbonne Universités (M.C., A.B., G.S., A.D.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS_1127, Paris; INSERM (M.C., E.M., A.B., G.S., A.D.), U 1127, Paris, France; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics (M.C.), de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Laboratoire de Neurogénétique (M.C., G.S.), Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ICM, GHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B., D.R., S.C.-B., C.R., A.A.), Paris-Lyon-Lille; INSERM U1141 (L.B., D.R.), Paris; APHP (L.B., S.C.-B.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris, France; Service de Neurologie (M.A.-B.), CHU Bab el Oued, Alger, Algeria; APHP (D.R., A.A.), Armand-Trousseau Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, UPMC Univ Paris 06; Hospices Civils de Lyon (C.R.), HFME, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Bron; Centre Hospitalier du Pays d'Aix (M.-A.C.), Service de Pédiatrie, Aix en Provence; APHM (M.M.), Service de neurologie pédiatrique, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Génétique (A.T.), Hôpital Bretonneau, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours; Centre National de Génotypage (D.B., V.M., J.-F.D.), Institut de Génomique, CEA, Evry; APHP (A.B., D.H., A.D.), Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficiences Intellectuelles de causes rares (D.H.), Paris; and Groupe de Recherche Clinique déficiences intellectuelles (D.H.), UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
(1) Pfizer - Genetic Services Advisory Board (2011)
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
(1) Journal of Huntington?s Disease (editor); (2) International Advisory Committee for Archives of Neurology (editor)
Patents:
1.
?Anaplerotic therapy of Huntington disease and other polyglutamine diseases?, BIO06353 Mochel/Durr (EP 06291873.5, 12/4/2006)
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Pfizer Inc.
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
ANR (French Agency for Research) PHRC (Hospital Program for Clinical Research), grant BIOSCA (PI): 2010-2012
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
(1) Track HD study, Paris site investigator, 2008-2011 (2) Track On study, Paris site investigator, 2012-2015
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
?Anaplerotic therapy of Huntington disease and other polyglutamine diseases?, BIO06353 Mochel/Durr (EP 06291873.5, 12/4/2006)
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence to Prof. Durr: [email protected]
Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

Author Contributions

M.C. was involved in acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and drafting/revising the manuscript. L.B. was involved in study concept and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, obtaining funding, study supervision and coordination, drafting/revising the manuscript. E.M. was involved in acquisition of data. M.A.-B. was involved in examination of patients. D.R. was involved in analysis and interpretation of data and revising the manuscript. S.C.-B. was involved in acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and drafting/revising the manuscript. C.R. was involved in examination of patients. M.-A.C. was involved in examination of patients. M.M. was involved in examination of patients. A.T. was involved in examination of patients and revising the manuscript. D.B. was involved in acquisition of data. V.M. was involved in acquisition of data. A.A. was involved in examination of patients. J.-F.D. was involved in acquisition of data and revising the manuscript. A.B. was involved in study concept and design, obtaining funding, study supervision and coordination, and drafting/revising the manuscript. D.H. was involved in examination of patients and drafting/revising the manuscript. G.S. was involved in study concept and design, analysis and interpretation of data, obtaining funding, study supervision and coordination, and drafting/revising the manuscript. A.D. was involved in study concept and design, analysis and interpretation of data, examination of patients, obtaining funding, study supervision and coordination, drafting/revising the manuscript.

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