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Abstract

Objective:

To investigate whether staff radiologists working in nonacademic hospitals can adequately rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on head CT <6 hours after headache onset.

Methods:

In a multicenter, retrospective study, we studied a consecutive series of patients presenting with acute headache to 11 nonacademic hospitals. Inclusion criteria were (1) normal level of consciousness without focal deficits, (2) head CT <6 hours after headache onset and reported negative for the presence of SAH by a staff radiologist, and (3) subsequent CSF spectrophotometry. Two neuroradiologists and one stroke neurologist from 2 academic tertiary care centers independently reviewed admission CTs of patients with CSF results that were considered positive for presence of bilirubin according to local criteria. We investigated the negative predictive value for detection of SAH by staff radiologists in nonacademic hospitals on head CT in patients scanned <6 hours after onset of acute headache.

Results:

Of 760 included patients, CSF analysis was considered positive for bilirubin in 52 patients (7%). Independent review of these patients' CTs identified one patient (1/52; 2%) with a perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal SAH. Negative predictive value for detection of subarachnoid blood by staff radiologists working in a nonacademic hospital was 99.9% (95% confidence interval 99.3%–100.0%).

Conclusions:

Our results support a change of practice wherein a lumbar puncture can be withheld in patients with a head CT scan performed <6 hours after headache onset and reported negative for the presence of SAH by a staff radiologist in the described nonacademic setting.

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 84Number 19May 12, 2015
Pages: 1927-1932
PubMed: 25862794

Publication History

Received: September 30, 2014
Accepted: January 27, 2015
Published online: April 10, 2015
Published in print: May 12, 2015

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Disclosure

K. Blok, G. Rinkel, C. Majoie, J. Hendrikse, M. Braaksma, C. Tijssen, Y. Wong, J. Hofmeijer, J. Extercatte, B. Kerklaan, T. Schreuder, S. ten Holter, F. Verheul, L. Harlaar, M. Pruissen, and V. Kwa report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. P. Brouwers reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, outside the submitted work. M. Remmers, W. Schonewille, N. Kruyt, and M. Vergouwen report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures.

Study Funding

No targeted funding reported.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Katelijn M. Blok, MD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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Gabriel J.E. Rinkel, MD, FRCP(E)
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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Charles B.L.M. Majoie, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
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1.
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Jeroen Hendrikse, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
grant 916-76-035 from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
grant 916-76-035 from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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NONE
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Meriam Braaksma, MD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Cees C. Tijssen, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
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Yu Yi Wong, MD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
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NONE
Jeannette Hofmeijer, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Jorunn Extercatte, MD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Bertjan Kerklaan, MD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Tobien H.C.M.L. Schreuder, MD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Susanne ten Holter, MD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Freek Verheul, MD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Merck Serono advisary board The Netherlands (1)
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Laurike Harlaar, MD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
D. Martijn O. Pruissen, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Vincent I.H. Kwa, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Paul J. Brouwers, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Serving on a scientific advisory board from Boehringer Ingelheim
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Honoraria for speaking engagements and travel funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Medtronic
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Michel J.M. Remmers, MD, MSc
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Wouter J. Schonewille, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
The Netherlands Heart Foundation
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Nyika D. Kruyt, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Mervyn D.I. Vergouwen, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus (K.M.B., G.J.E.R., M.D.I.V.), and Department of Radiology (J. Hendrikse), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Radiology (C.B.L.M.M.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (M.B., C.C.T.), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg; Department of Neurology (Y.Y.W., J. Hofmeijer), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Department of Neurology (J.E., B.K.), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (T.H.C.M.L.S.), Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen; Department of Neurology (S.t.H., F.V.), Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda; Department of Neurology (L.H., D.M.O.P.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht; Department of Neurology (V.I.H.K.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (P.J.B.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede; Department of Neurology (M.J.M.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda; Department of Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein; and Department of Neurology (N.D.K.), Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. N.D.K. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
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Notes

Correspondence to Dr. Vergouwen: [email protected]
Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

Author Contributions

M.D.I.V. and G.J.E.R. conceived and designed the study. K.M.B. and M.D.I.V. performed data analysis. All authors participated in the data collection, drafted the manuscript and/or contributed to its revision, and approved the final version.

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