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Abstract

Objective:

We prospectively screened a large European cohort of patients presenting with hyperCKemia and/or limb-girdle muscular weakness (LGMW) for acid α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency by dried blood spot (DBS) investigation.

Methods:

DBS were collected from 3,076 consecutive adult patients from 7 German and British neuromuscular centers. All specimens were investigated for GAA deficiency by fluorometry. Samples with reduced enzyme activity were subsequently investigated for GAA gene mutations.

Results:

Of 3,076 patients with DBS samples, 232 patients (7.6%) showed low GAA enzyme activity. Of these 232 patients, 55 (24%) presented with isolated hyperCKemia and 176 (76%) with hyperCKemia and LGMW. With both features present, 94% of the patients showed a low enzymatic activity. Mutational analysis found GAA gene mutations in 74 patients (2.4%); herein 70 patients were heterozygote for the common GAA gene splice-site mutation c.-32-13T>G. The most common clinical presentation in the confirmed Pompe cohort was a limb-girdle phenotype (85.3%) combined with ventilatory insufficiency (61%). Isolated hyperCKemia was found in 12%, while 2.7 had hyperCKemia and ventilatory insufficiency only.

Conclusions:

In a large cohort of unselected adult patients with hyperCKemia and/or LGMW, we found a prevalence of late-onset Pompe disease of 2.4%. Therefore, targeted screening of such a population should be encouraged in clinical practice.

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 87Number 3July 19, 2016
Pages: 295-298
PubMed: 27170567

Publication History

Received: November 24, 2015
Accepted: April 5, 2016
Published online: May 11, 2016
Published in print: July 19, 2016

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Disclosure

Z. Lukacs has received research support, honoraria, and travel funding from Genzyme, a Sanofi company, during the past 5 years. P. Nieves Cobos, S. Wenninger, T. Willis, and T. Evangelista report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. M. Roberts has received research support, honoraria, and travel funding from Genzyme, a Sanofi company, during the past 5 years. M. Guglieri reports no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. R. Quinlivan has received honoraria from Genzyme and research funding and honoraria from PTC bio. D. Hilton-Jones, S. Zierz, B. Schlotter-Weigel, M. Walter, and P. Reilich report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. T. Klopstock has received research support, honoraria, and travel funding from Genzyme, a Sanofi company, during the past 5 years. M. Deschauer has received research support, honoraria, and travel funding from Genzyme, a Sanofi company, during the past 5 years. V. Straub has received research support, honoraria, and travel funding from Genzyme, a Sanofi company, during the past 5 years. Dr. Straub is a member of the Genzyme Pompe Disease Global Advisory Board. W. Müller-Felber has received research support, honoraria, and travel funding from Genzyme, a Sanofi company, during the past 5 years. B. Schoser has received research support, honoraria, and travel funding from Genzyme, a Sanofi company, during the past 5 years. Dr. Schoser is a member of the Genzyme Pompe Disease Global Advisory Board. Dr. Schoser received honoraria and travel funding from BioMarin Pharmaceutical and Audentes Therapeutics. Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures.

Study Funding

This study was supported in part by an unrestricted research grant from Genzyme, a Sanofi company, to Dr. Lukacs, Hamburg, Germany.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Zoltan Lukacs, PhD*
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) Genzyme B.V., NL for travel and honoraria (2) BioMarin Ltd, UK for travel and honoraria
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
(1) Genzyme B.V., NL (2) BioMarin Ltd., UK (3) Alexion Pharma, CH
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Paulina Nieves Cobos, MSc*
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Stephan Wenninger, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Tracey A. Willis, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Advice on advisory board for Biomarin and PTC.
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Funded for meeting by Genzyme - travel expenses. Funded attendance at International muscle meeting and honorarium as speaker - Genzyme.
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Michela Guglieri, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
I am in the Scientific advisory board for PTC, Biomarin and aTyr (commercial). I am a member of the CINRG group (non-profit). Reimbursements are directly to the Newcastle University
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
FOR DMD NIH grant, funding as Chief Medical Coordinator (Consultant position) for 5 years ended in May 2015
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
My current post (Research Associate, Consultant role) is partially funded by DMD patient organisation charities
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Marc Roberts, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Genzyme Medical Advisory Board (European Board advising on Industry funded Patient registry for Pompe Disease) Amicus Medical Advisory Board (International Board advising on future clinical trials in Pompe Disease) Biomarin Medical Advisory Board (International Board advising on current clinical trials in Pompe Disease)
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Rosaline Quinlivan, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Ultragenox: honorarium (commercial)
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Genzyme:speaker honorarium (commercial) PTC bio: speaker honorarium (commercial)
Editorial Boards:
1.
Joint co-ordinating editor Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Editorial Board member Neuromuscular disorders
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
PTC bio commercial
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
European Union 3 year research grant
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Muscular dystrophy UK: research grant
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
David Hilton-Jones, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
(1) Editorial Advisoy Board, Neuromuscular Disorders since 2004. No financial compensation; (2) Editorial Board, Practical Neurology, since 2000. No financial compensation.
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
Disorders of Voluntary Muscle - several editions in last 20 years from Churchill Livingstone and Cambridge University Press Oxford Textbook of Neurology (Neuromuscular Disorders), OUP, 2015
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Teresinha Evangelista, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Stephan Zierz, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
speakers honoraria fom Genzyme Co, Germany
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Beate Schlotter-Weigel, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Dr. Beate Schlotter-Weigel received funding for travel: - PLEO-CMT Investigators' Meeting Paris (France) October 8-9, 2015 on account of Pharnext, France (travel and accommodation).
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Maggie C. Walter, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
(1) Novartis Pharma GmbH EU Local Advisory Board Meeting on April 15, 2013 on the topic of Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis (sIBM), (2) Steering Committee for a Prospective Observational Study in Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis (sIBM), RTI HS, July 2014, (3) Ataluren (Translarna?) Advisory Board Meeting, PTC Therapeutics, November 2014, (4) National Advisory Board Olesoxime ? SMA, Roche Pharma AG, December 2015, (5) Advisory Board Meeting sIBM, Novartis Pharma GmbH, February 2016, (6) Advisory Board Meeting Clinical Research in DMD, Gr?nenthal Pharma AG, February 2016
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) EMG Seminar, Vienna, Krankenhaus Hietzing mit NZ-Rosenhuegel, travel and speaker honoraria, April 2014 (2) BYM338B2203 EU Investigator Meeting, Novartis Pharma GmbH, travel and accommodation, February 2013 (3) Talk ?Update Muskeldystrophien?, Biogen Pharma GmbH, speaker honoraria, October 2013 (4) Talk ?Update sIBM?, Novartis Pharma GmbH, speaker honoraria
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Consultancies from (1) Guidepoint Global, (2) GLG Consult and (3) Olson Research on the topic of muscular dystrophies and spinal muscular atrophy, and from (4) Novartis on the topic of IBM
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
(1) Glaxo Smith Kline GmbH, DMD BOI (2) Trophos AG (now Roche Pharma AG), SMA-TRO19622CLEQ1275-1 (3) Grifols GmbH, Gamedis Study (4) Novartis Pharma GmbH, IBM registry
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Bonn, Germany, MD-NET 01GM0601, 2009-2013, and CMT-NET 01GM1511B, 2016-2019
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
(1) Jain Foundation, Dysferlinopathy Natural History Study, ongoing (2) Deutsche Gesellschaft f?r Muskelkranke, MFM patient registry, 04-2014 (2) Association contre les Myopathies (AFM) DdT2 2010 Funding Rech Translat ARD/SS/2010/2077/Following number 15037/CA 15/07/10 DRD10/PHYLO/DEPRE/MNCMT/ALLEM, CMT registry (3) Friedrich-Baur-GmbH, Burgkunstadt, ?Oberfrankenprojekte?, 12/11 - 12/16
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Peter Reilich, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Thomas Klopstock, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) commercial entity: Santhera Pharmaceuticals (speaker honoraria and travel costs) (2) commercial entity: GenSight Biologics (speaker honoraria and travel costs)
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
(1) commercial entity: Santhera Pharmaceuticals (2) commercial entity: GenSight Biologics
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
(1) commercial entity: Santhera Pharmaceuticals (2) commercial entity: GenSight Biologics (3) commercial entity: Genzyme
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) Bundesministerium f?r Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) (2) European Commission, 7th Framework Programme
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Marcus Deschauer, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Sanofi Genzyme, Lecturer honoraria and travel fees to conferences
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Deutsche Gesellschaft f?r Muskelkranke (German Society for People with Muscular Disorders). Grant number Ka4/1
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Volker Straub, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
(1)Genzyme, advisory board for Pompe disease, for past 2 years (2)Pfizer, advisory board, for past year (3)Prosensa, advisory board, for past year (4)Gene therapy trial at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Ohio, US; Data Safety Monitoring Board
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) Genzyme, travel expenses and/or honoraria for lectures or educational activities related to Pompe disease and next generation sequencing.
Editorial Boards:
1.
(1) Neuromuscular Disorders, editorial board member, 5 years (2) Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases, editorial board, first year (3) PLOS Currents Muscular Dystrophy, Board of Reviewers, 2 years
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
(1) Genzyme
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
(1) GSK, clinical trial funding as UK chief investigator (2) Genzyme, clinical trial funding as UK chief investigator (3)Prosensa, clinic trial funding as UK chief investigator
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) Funding from the European Commission (2) Funding from the UK Medical Research Council
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
(1) funding from Newcastle University
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
(1) funding from the Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy (2) funding from Association Francaise Contre les Myopathies (3) funding from the LGMD2I Research Fund (4) funding from the Wellcome Trust (5) funding from the Sylvia Aitken Charitable Trust
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Wolfgang Müller-Felber, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
(1) Genzyme: European Pompe registry advisory board
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
1) Lilly: Tadafilil Study Duchenne 1) Trophos: Olesoxime Trial SMA 1) Biogen: Embrace Trial 1) Biomarin: Exonskipping Duchenne
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Benedikt Schoser, MD
From Newborn Screening and Metabolic Diagnostics (Z.L., P.N.C.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology (S.W., B.S.-W., M.C.W., P.R., T.K., B.S.), and Department of Neuropediatrics, Dr. Von Haunersche Kinderklinik (W.M.-F.), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (T.A.W.), Oswestry; Institute of Genetic Medicine (T.E., M.G., V.S.), Newcastle University; Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (M.R.), Salford; UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital (R.Q.), Queen Square, London; Department of Neurology (D.H.-J.), Oxford University Hospital, UK; and Department of Neurology (S.Z., M.D.), Halle University, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
(1) Sanofi-Genzyme Global Pompe advisory board (1) Biomarin Pharmaceutica Global Pompe advisory board (1) Amicus Therapeutics Global advisory board (1) Audentes Therapeutics Global neuromsuclar advisory board
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) Sanofi-Genzyme Global Pompe advisory board: travel support (1) Biomarin Pharmaceutica Global Pompe advisory board: travel support (1) Amicus Therapeutics Global advisory board: travel support (1) Audentes Therapeutics Global neuromsuclar advisory board: travel support
Editorial Boards:
1.
Editorial advisory board member: Neuromuscular disorders (no compensation) Journal of Neuromuscular disorders (no compensation) Section editor: Current opinion in Neurology (no compensation)
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence to Dr. Schoser: [email protected]
*
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

Author Contributions

Z. Lukacs and B. Schoser: design of study, analysis, acquisition and interpretation of all data, and drafting of the manuscript. T.A. Willis, T. Evangelista, M. Roberts, M. Guglieri, R. Quinlivan, D. Hilton-Jones, V. Straub: acquisition and interpretation of data from the UK and critical revision of the manuscript. P. Nieves Cobos, S. Wenninger, S. Zierz, B. Schlotter-Weigel, M.C. Walter, P. Reilich, T. Klopstock, M. Deschauer, W. Müller-Felber: acquisition of data in Germany and critical revision of the manuscript.

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  1. Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmias in Patients with Late-Onset Pompe Disease—Results from a Long Follow-Up in a Group of 12 Patients and Review of Literature, Cardiogenetics, 14, 1, (38-50), (2024).https://doi.org/10.3390/cardiogenetics14010003
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  10. Therapeutic Options for the Management of Pompe Disease: Current Challenges and Clinical Evidence in Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, Volume 18, (1099-1115), (2022).https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S334232
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