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Article
December 16, 2016

Prevalence and incidence of epilepsy
A systematic review and meta-analysis of international studies

This article has been corrected.
VIEW CORRECTION
January 17, 2017 issue
88 (3) 296-303

Abstract

Objective:

To review population-based studies of the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy worldwide and use meta-analytic techniques to explore factors that may explain heterogeneity between estimates.

Methods:

The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards were followed. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles published on the prevalence or incidence of epilepsy since 1985. Abstract, full-text review, and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate. Meta-analyses and meta-regressions were used to explore the association between prevalence or incidence, age group, sex, country level income, and study quality.

Results:

A total of 222 studies were included (197 on prevalence, 48 on incidence). The point prevalence of active epilepsy was 6.38 per 1,000 persons (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 5.57–7.30), while the lifetime prevalence was 7.60 per 1,000 persons (95% CI 6.17–9.38). The annual cumulative incidence of epilepsy was 67.77 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 56.69–81.03) while the incidence rate was 61.44 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 50.75–74.38). The prevalence of epilepsy did not differ by age group, sex, or study quality. The active annual period prevalence, lifetime prevalence, and incidence rate of epilepsy were higher in low to middle income countries. Epilepsies of unknown etiology and those with generalized seizures had the highest prevalence.

Conclusions:

This study provides a comprehensive synthesis of the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy from published international studies and offers insight into factors that contribute to heterogeneity between estimates. Significant gaps (e.g., lack of incidence studies, stratification by age groups) were identified. Standardized reporting of future epidemiologic studies of epilepsy is needed.

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Supplementary Material

File (appendix_e-3_with_errors.docx)
File (appendix_e1.pdf)
File (appendix_e2.pdf)
File (appendix_e3.pdf)
File (appendix_e4.docx)
File (figure_e1.pdf)
File (figure_e2.pdf)
File (figure_e3.pdf)
File (figure_e4.pdf)
File (figure_e5.pdf)
File (figure_e6.pdf)
File (figure_e7.pdf)
File (figure_e8.pdf)
File (table_e-1_with_errors.docx)
File (table_e-3_with_errors.docx)
File (table_e1.pdf)
File (table_e2.pdf)
File (table_e3.pdf)
File (table_e4.pdf)

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Letters to the Editor
22 February 2017
Letter to the Editor re: Fiest et al.
Rosemarie Kobau, Health Scientist
Matthew Zack, Atlanta, GA

Noting variability around epilepsy burden estimates, Fiest et al. aimed to provide "a comprehensive synthesis of the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy from published international studies." [1] This article, which may be widely cited, is problematic.

The authors omitted at least two references that meet the study's search criteria, (Appendix e-1) [1] but not its exclusionary criteria (Figure 1). [1,2,3] The authors noted the possibility of missing other studies (i.e. from Australia), but did not adequately account for this discrepancy relative to efforts around conducting a comprehensive synthesis.

Despite some acknowledgement of the heterogeneity of the estimates of active period prevalence (Figure 2) and incidence (Figures 3A, 3B), based on I2 statistics close to 100% and statistically significant Q-statistics, the authors still reported pooled estimates. [1] These latter estimates misrepresent the extreme heterogeneity evident in the figures. At minimum, the authors should more clearly indicate and discuss the unreliability of these pooled estimates to alert readers about the possible misuse. Readers might consider citing the range of all or country-specific estimates when referencing study outcomes.

Further, the authors miscited reference 167 (Appendix e-3) used in Figure 2; [1,4] which should instead be referenced as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [5]

1. Fiest KM, Sauro KM, Wiebe S, et al. Prevalence and incidence of epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of international studies. Neurology 2017;88:296-303.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Epilepsy in adults and access to care--United States, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2012;61:909-913.

3. Holden EW, Thanh Nguyen H, Grossman E, et al. Estimating prevalence, incidence, and disease-related mortality for patients with epilepsy in managed care organizations. Epilepsia 2005;46:311-319.

4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Detection of notifiable diseases through surveillance for imported plague--New York, September-October 1994. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1994;43:805-807.

5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current trends prevalence of self-reported epilepsy--United States, 1986 1990. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1994; 43:810-811, 817-818.

For disclosures, please contact the editorial office at [email protected].

27 February 2017
Author response to Kobau et al.
Nathalie Jette, Professor
Kirsten M. Fiest, Khara M. Sauro, Samuel Wiebe, Scott B. Patten

We thank Kobau et al. for the interest in our article. [1] We agree there is marked heterogeneity among studies and acknowledged this throughout the article. We attempted to mitigate heterogeneity by using a random effects model and reported medians with 25 and 75 percentiles alongside pooled estimates to provide readers with a more complete picture of data distribution and heterogeneity. In the article, we also identified geographic outliers. [1] Despite marked heterogeneity, pooled estimates and medians were similar. Together, they provide a valid overview of this literature and were accompanied in the article by appropriately cautionary statements about their interpretation. [1] Further, we attempted formal analyses of sources of heterogeneity, which proved difficult and did not yield definitive conclusions, and provided these results in supplementary e-tables. [1]

Kobau et al. also indicate that two studies were missed from our review. One study was excluded because it was not population-based according to our definition (not representative of general population [i.e. patients from a managed care organization]). [2] The other study was indeed missed at the abstract review stage (though captured by our search); [3] we thank Kobau et al. for pointing out this omission. Including this study [3] yielded estimates that were nearly identical, thus the conclusions remain unchanged. Unfortunately, missing studies that meet eligibility criteria is always a possibility despite rigorous adherence to guidelines for systematic review, as highlighted in our discussion. For this reason, updating systematic reviews periodically is recommended.

1. Fiest KM, Sauro KM, Wiebe S, et al. Prevalence and incidence of epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of international studies. Neurology 2017;88:296-303.

2. Holden EW, Thanh Nguyen H, Grossman E, et al. Estimating prevalence, incidence, and disease-related mortality for patients with epilepsy in managed care organizations. Epilepsia 2005;46:311-319

3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Epilepsy in adults and access to care--United States, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2012;61:909-913.

For disclosures, please contact the editorial office at [email protected].

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 88Number 3January 17, 2017
Pages: 296-303
PubMed: 27986877

Publication History

Received: March 15, 2016
Accepted: October 12, 2016
Published online: December 16, 2016
Published in print: January 17, 2017

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Disclosure

K. Fiest held a studentship from Alberta Innovates Health Solutions during the study period. K. Sauro held a studentship from Alberta Innovates Health Solutions during the study period. S. Wiebe holds the Hopewell Professorship of Clinical Neurosciences Research from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute. S. Patten is a Senior Health Scholar with Alberta Innovates Health Solutions. C. Kwon, J. Dykeman, T. Pringsheim, and D. Lorenzetti report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. N. Jette holds a Canada Research Chair in Neurologic Health Services Research and held an Alberta Innovates Health Solutions Population Health Investigator Award during the study period. Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures.

Study Funding

Funding provided by the Public Health Agency of Canada to N. Jetté and T. Pringsheim. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors/researchers and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Public Health Agency of Canada.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Kirsten M. Fiest, PhD*
From the Department of Community Health Sciences, O'Brien Institute for Public Health (K.M.F., K.M.S., S.W., S.B.P., T.P., D.L.L., N.J.), and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences & Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S., S.W., J.D., T.P., N.J.) and Department of Psychiatry, Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education (S.B.P.), Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S, S.W., S.B.P., T.P., N.J.), Department of Critical Care Medicine (K.M.F.), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Neurosurgery (C.-S.K.), King's College Hospital, London, UK; and Institute of Health Economics (D.L.L.), Edmonton, Canada.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
(1) University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine (2) University of Calgary Department of Critical Care Medicine (3) University of Calgary O'Brien Institute for Public Health (4) Alberta Health Services Critical Care Strategic Clinical Network
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Khara M. Sauro, PhD*
From the Department of Community Health Sciences, O'Brien Institute for Public Health (K.M.F., K.M.S., S.W., S.B.P., T.P., D.L.L., N.J.), and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences & Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S., S.W., J.D., T.P., N.J.) and Department of Psychiatry, Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education (S.B.P.), Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S, S.W., S.B.P., T.P., N.J.), Department of Critical Care Medicine (K.M.F.), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Neurosurgery (C.-S.K.), King's College Hospital, London, UK; and Institute of Health Economics (D.L.L.), Edmonton, Canada.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, PhD Studentship, 2013- 2017
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
International League Against Epilepsy Canadian League Against Epilepsy
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Samuel Wiebe, MD, MSc
From the Department of Community Health Sciences, O'Brien Institute for Public Health (K.M.F., K.M.S., S.W., S.B.P., T.P., D.L.L., N.J.), and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences & Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S., S.W., J.D., T.P., N.J.) and Department of Psychiatry, Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education (S.B.P.), Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S, S.W., S.B.P., T.P., N.J.), Department of Critical Care Medicine (K.M.F.), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Neurosurgery (C.-S.K.), King's College Hospital, London, UK; and Institute of Health Economics (D.L.L.), Edmonton, Canada.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
DSMB: NINDS (ongoing)
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Support for congress travel from International League Against Epilepsy
Editorial Boards:
1.
Epileptic Disorders (editorial board) Epilepsy & Behavior (editorial board) Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences (editorial board)
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) Grant support from Canadian Institutes of Health Research (2) Grant support from Alberta Innovates Health Solutions (3) Hopewell professorship of clinical neurosciences research from University of Calgary
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Scott B. Patten, MD, PhD
From the Department of Community Health Sciences, O'Brien Institute for Public Health (K.M.F., K.M.S., S.W., S.B.P., T.P., D.L.L., N.J.), and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences & Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S., S.W., J.D., T.P., N.J.) and Department of Psychiatry, Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education (S.B.P.), Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S, S.W., S.B.P., T.P., N.J.), Department of Critical Care Medicine (K.M.F.), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Neurosurgery (C.-S.K.), King's College Hospital, London, UK; and Institute of Health Economics (D.L.L.), Edmonton, Canada.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
(1) Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Editor-in-Chief, 2014-present. (2) Chronic Diseases in Canada, Editorial Advisory Board Member, 2009-present. (3) Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, Editorial Advisory Board Member, 2010-present. (4) Sr. Assoc. Editor, Epidemiology & Psychiatric Sciences
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
Epidemiology for Canadian Students. Brush Education, 2015.
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) Canadian Institutes for Health Research, MOP-89816, P.I. 2008-2011 and MOP-130415, P.I. 2013-2015. (2) Hotchkiss Brain Institute. Depression in the Community, 2013-2016. (3) Hotchkiss Brain Institute/Pfizer Research Competition. Building a Foundation for a Depression eHub for Neurological Patients, 2015 - 2016.
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Churl-Su Kwon, MD
From the Department of Community Health Sciences, O'Brien Institute for Public Health (K.M.F., K.M.S., S.W., S.B.P., T.P., D.L.L., N.J.), and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences & Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S., S.W., J.D., T.P., N.J.) and Department of Psychiatry, Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education (S.B.P.), Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S, S.W., S.B.P., T.P., N.J.), Department of Critical Care Medicine (K.M.F.), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Neurosurgery (C.-S.K.), King's College Hospital, London, UK; and Institute of Health Economics (D.L.L.), Edmonton, Canada.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Jonathan Dykeman, MD
From the Department of Community Health Sciences, O'Brien Institute for Public Health (K.M.F., K.M.S., S.W., S.B.P., T.P., D.L.L., N.J.), and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences & Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S., S.W., J.D., T.P., N.J.) and Department of Psychiatry, Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education (S.B.P.), Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S, S.W., S.B.P., T.P., N.J.), Department of Critical Care Medicine (K.M.F.), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Neurosurgery (C.-S.K.), King's College Hospital, London, UK; and Institute of Health Economics (D.L.L.), Edmonton, Canada.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Tamara Pringsheim, MD, MSc
From the Department of Community Health Sciences, O'Brien Institute for Public Health (K.M.F., K.M.S., S.W., S.B.P., T.P., D.L.L., N.J.), and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences & Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S., S.W., J.D., T.P., N.J.) and Department of Psychiatry, Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education (S.B.P.), Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S, S.W., S.B.P., T.P., N.J.), Department of Critical Care Medicine (K.M.F.), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Neurosurgery (C.-S.K.), King's College Hospital, London, UK; and Institute of Health Economics (D.L.L.), Edmonton, Canada.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Neurology Clinical Practice, Editorial Board Member, 2016 Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Editorial Board Member, 2016
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Principal Investigator 2014/2015; (2) Sick Kids Foundation, Principal Investigator, 2013-2018 (3) Alberta Mental Health Strategic Clinical Network, 2014-2016
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Diane L. Lorenzetti, PhD
From the Department of Community Health Sciences, O'Brien Institute for Public Health (K.M.F., K.M.S., S.W., S.B.P., T.P., D.L.L., N.J.), and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences & Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S., S.W., J.D., T.P., N.J.) and Department of Psychiatry, Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education (S.B.P.), Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S, S.W., S.B.P., T.P., N.J.), Department of Critical Care Medicine (K.M.F.), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Neurosurgery (C.-S.K.), King's College Hospital, London, UK; and Institute of Health Economics (D.L.L.), Edmonton, Canada.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Nathalie Jetté, MD, MSc
From the Department of Community Health Sciences, O'Brien Institute for Public Health (K.M.F., K.M.S., S.W., S.B.P., T.P., D.L.L., N.J.), and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences & Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S., S.W., J.D., T.P., N.J.) and Department of Psychiatry, Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education (S.B.P.), Hotchkiss Brain Institute (K.M.S, S.W., S.B.P., T.P., N.J.), Department of Critical Care Medicine (K.M.F.), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Neurosurgery (C.-S.K.), King's College Hospital, London, UK; and Institute of Health Economics (D.L.L.), Edmonton, Canada.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Epilepsia, Associate Editor, 2013 to present; Neurology Editorial Board since 2015.
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
(1) I was a co-investigator on an operating grant from the University of Calgary Hotchkiss Brain Institute, co- funded by Pfizer Canada for work not related to this paper.
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Role for all of these is principal investigator or co- principal investigator: Canada Research Chair Tier 2 in Neuroscience Health Services Research, salary support (2010-present); Canadian Institutes for Health Research (2007 to present), Hotchkiss Brain Institute (operating funds 2015-present); University of Calgary (operating funds 2016-present).
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Alberta Spine Foundation (2015-2016)
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence to Dr. Jetté: [email protected]
*
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

Author Contributions

K.M. Fiest: substantial contribution to acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data, drafting the work, and revising it critically for intellectual content. K.M. Sauro: substantial contribution to acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data, drafting the work, and revising it critically for intellectual content. S. Wiebe: substantial contribution to conception or design of the work, interpretation of data, revising the work critically for intellectual content. S.B. Patten: substantial contribution to conception or design of the work, interpretation of data, revising the work critically for intellectual content. C.S. Kwon: substantial contribution to acquisition of data and revising the work critically for intellectual content. J. Dykeman: substantial contribution to acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data and revising the work critically for intellectual content. T. Pringsheim: obtained study funding and provided substantial contribution to conception or design of the work, interpretation of data, revising the work critically for intellectual content. D.L. Lorenzetti: substantial contribution to conception or design of the work, interpretation of data, revising the work critically for intellectual content. N. Jette: obtained study funding and provided substantial contribution to conception or design of the work, acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data, drafting the work, and revising it critically for intellectual content.

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