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Abstract

Objective

To test whether elevated blood pressure (BP) relates to gray matter (GM) volume (GMV) changes in young adults who had not previously been diagnosed with hypertension (systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP] ≥140/90 mm Hg).

Methods

We associated BP with GMV from structural 3T T1-weighted MRI of 423 healthy adults between 19 and 40 years of age (mean age 27.7 ± 5.3 years, 177 women, SBP/DBP 123.2/73.4 ± 12.2/8.5 mm Hg). Data originated from 4 previously unpublished cross-sectional studies conducted in Leipzig, Germany. We performed voxel-based morphometry on each study separately and combined results in image-based meta-analyses (IBMA) to assess cumulative effects across studies. Resting BP was assigned to 1 of 4 categories: (1) SBP <120 and DBP <80 mm Hg, (2) SBP 120–129 or DBP 80–84 mm Hg, (3) SBP 130–139 or DBP 85–89 mm Hg, (4) SBP ≥140 or DBP ≥90 mm Hg.

Results

IBMA yielded the following results: (1) lower regional GMV was correlated with higher peripheral BP; (2) lower GMV was found with higher BP when comparing individuals in subhypertensive categories 3 and 2, respectively, to those in category 1; (3) lower BP-related GMV was found in regions including hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, frontal, and parietal structures (e.g., precuneus).

Conclusion

BP ≥120/80 mm Hg was associated with lower GMV in regions that have previously been related to GM decline in older individuals with manifest hypertension. Our study shows that BP-associated GM alterations emerge continuously across the range of BP and earlier in adulthood than previously assumed. This suggests that treating hypertension or maintaining lower BP in early adulthood might be essential for preventing the pathophysiologic cascade of asymptomatic cerebrovascular disease to symptomatic end-organ damage, such as stroke or dementia.

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Letters to the Editor

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 92Number 8February 19, 2019
Pages: e758-e773
PubMed: 30674602

Publication History

Received: January 9, 2018
Accepted: October 15, 2018
Published online: January 23, 2019
Published in print: February 19, 2019

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Disclosure

The authors report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures.

Study Funding

Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

H. Lina Schaare, MSc
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Shahrzad Kharabian Masouleh, MSc
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
J?lich research centre
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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Frauke Beyer, MSc
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
DFG CRC 1052 "Obesity Mechanisms", Subproject A1, PhD position, 2014-2018
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
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NONE
Deniz Kumral, MSc
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Marie Uhlig, MSc
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Janis D. Reinelt
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
Aicura medical GmbH, business development, since 08/2018, this position does not relate to any of my previous research projects, including the work for the current manuscript
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Andrea M.F. Reiter, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Leonie Lampe, MD
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
Aicura medical, R&D, since 2 months
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Anahit Babayan, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Miray Erbey, MSc
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Josefin Roebbig, MSc
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Matthias L. Schroeter, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
MLS has been supported by the Parkinson?s Disease Foundation (Grant No. PDF-IRG-1307), the Michael J Fox Foundation (Grant No. MJFF-11362), the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF; Grant number FKZ 01GI1007A; German FTLD consortium), and by the German Research Foundation (DFG, SCHR 774/5-1).
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Hadas Okon-Singer, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Editorial advisory board member of the journal Cognition and Emotion. Also, acted as guest editor for two special issues in Biological Psychology.
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
(1) The JOY ventures grant for neuro-wellness research. 2017-2018. $100,000. Topic: What can the brain teach us about effective cognitive training: Using machine learning and fMRI in search of effective personalized training to improve wellbeing. With Prof. Sigal Zilcha-Mano. (2) Israel Science Foundation (ISF). 2018-2021. $300,000. Topic: Neural Regulation of Behavioral and Autonomic Reactions to Aversive Distractors: Focus on the Pulvinar.
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Karsten Müller, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Natacha Mendes, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Daniel S. Margulies, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NeuroImage, Handling editor, 2018.
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
A. Veronica Witte, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) German Society for Neurology, travel compensations for conference talks, 2010-18, (2) Alzheimer's Association, travel grant for conference talk, 2012, (3) German National Academic Foundation, compensation for educational course, 2012, (4) Sport-Gesundheitspark Berlin e.V., honoraria for a symposium's talk, 2012, (5) Arbeitskreis omega-3 fatty acids e.V., travel and honoraria for a workshop talk, 2017
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) European Regional Development Fund, Project 100329290, PI, 2018-2020
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
(1) German Research Foundation, WI 3342/3-1, PI, 2017-2020
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Michael Gaebler, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, 13GW0206A, (Co-)PI, 2
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Arno Villringer, MD
From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 ‘Obesity Mechanisms,’ Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Non-Profit Entities: Aalto University, Finland ERC Panel, European Community Brains Unlimited, Maastricht
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Neuroimage, Editor, 2005-2008 Frontiers, Editor
Patents:
1.
Patent Pending: A device for the adaptive presentation of acoustic information on the basis of the listener?s brain state
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Bundesministerium f?r Bildung und Forschung Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence H.L. Schaare [email protected]
Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

Author Contributions

Study concept and design: H.L. Schaare, Dr. Villringer. Statistical analysis: H.L. Schaare. Acquisition or interpretation of data: all authors. Drafting of the manuscript: H.L. Schaare, Dr. Villringer. Critical revision of the manuscript: all authors.

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