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Abstract

Objective

To determine whether the GGC repeats in the NOTCH2NLC gene contribute to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Methods

In this study, 545 patients with ALS and 1,305 healthy controls from mainland China were recruited. Several pathogenic mutations in known ALS-causative genes (including C9ORF72 and ATXN2) and polynucleotide repeat expansions in NOP56 and AR genes were excluded. Repeat-primed PCR and GC-rich PCR were performed to determine the GGC repeat size in NOTCH2NLC. Systematic and targeted clinical evaluations and investigations, including skin biopsy and dynamic electrophysiologic studies, were conducted in the genetically affected patients.

Results

GGC repeat expansion was observed in 4 patients (numbers of repeats 44, 54, 96, and 143), accounting for ≈0.73% (4 of 545) of all patients with ALS. A comparison with 1,305 healthy controls revealed that GGC repeat expansion in NOTCH2NLC was associated with ALS (Fisher exact test, 4 of 545 vs 0 of 1,305, p = 0.007). Compared to patients with the neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) muscle weakness–dominant subtype, patients with ALS phenotype carrying the abnormal repeat expansion tended to have a severe phenotype and rapid deterioration.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that ALS is a specific phenotype of NIID or that GGC expansion in NOTCH2NLC is a factor that modifies ALS. These findings may help clarify the pathogenic mechanism of ALS and may expand the known clinical spectrum of NIID.

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Letters to the Editor
19 October 2020
Reader response: Identification of GGC repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Zhang-Yu Zou, Neurologist | Fujian Medical University Union Hospital

We read with great interest the study by Yuan et al.,1 in which GGC repeat expansion in NOTCH2NLC was observed in four Chinese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. One patient also developed cognitive impairment, bladder dysfunction, and sensory nerve conduction abnormalities. Although deficits in dementia, sensory, and sphincter disturbances can be features of ALS,2 both typical eosinophilic, p62-, ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions in skin biopsy and severe leukoencephalopathy with high-intensity signal along the corticomedullary junction on DWI support the diagnosis of neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID).3 As we know, cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions have been detected in neurons and glial cells in 97% of ALS patients and therefore, become a histopathological “gold standard.”4 We wonder whether the authors examined the presence of TDP-43 in skin biopsy since the deposition of TDP-43 or phosphorylated TDP-43 in ALS skin nerve fibers might serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker.5 This will provide more evidence to support the diagnosis of ALS. Further genetic and pathological studies are required to validate the hypothesis that ALS might be a special phenotype of NIID. At the moment, NIID should be considered as an ALS mimic syndrome, which highlights the importance of excluding other diseases in the diagnostic process of ALS.

Disclosure

The author reports no relevant disclosures. Contact [email protected] for full disclosures.

References

  1. Yuan Y, Liu Z, Hou X, et al. Identification of GGC repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurology 2020 Epub Sep 28.
  2. Ludolph A, Drory V, Hardiman O, et al. A revision of the El Escorial criteria - 2015. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2015;16:291–292.
  3. Sone J, Mori K, Inagaki T, et al. Clinicopathological features of adult-onset neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease. Brain 2016;139:3170–3186.
  4. Turner MR. MND plus. Pract Neurol 2019;19:376–377.
  5. Ren Y, Liu W, Li Y, et al. Cutaneous somatic and autonomic nerve TDP-43 deposition in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol 2018;265:1753–1763.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 95Number 24December 15, 2020
Pages: e3394-e3405
PubMed: 32989102

Publication History

Received: February 20, 2020
Accepted: August 3, 2020
Published online: September 28, 2020
Published in print: December 15, 2020

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Disclosure

Y. Yuan, Z. Liu, X. Hou, W. Li, J. Ni, L. Huang, Y. Hu, P. Liu, X. Hou, J. Xue, Q. Sun, Y. Tian, B. Jiao, R. Duan, H. Jiang, L. Shen, and B. Tang report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. J. Wang was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2018YFC1312003), the Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81671120, 81300981, 81250015), and the Clinical Scientific Program of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University (No. 2015105). Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures.

Study Funding

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2018YFC1312003), the Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81671120, 81300981, 81250015), and the Clinical Scientific Program of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University (No. 2015105).

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Yanchun Yuan, MS
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
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1.
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1.
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Zhen Liu, MS
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
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1.
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1.
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Xuan Hou, MS
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
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Wanzhen Li, BS
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
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Jie Ni, BS
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Ling Huang, BS
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
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Yiting Hu, BS
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Pan Liu, BS
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
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NONE
Xiaorong Hou, BS
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Jin Xue, MS
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Qiying Sun, MD
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Yun Tian, MD
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Bin Jiao, MD
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Ranhui Duan, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Hong Jiang, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Lu Shen, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Beisha Tang, BS
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
1、the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2016YFC1306000)
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Junling Wang, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (Y.Y., Z.L., X.H., W.L., J.N., Y.H., P.L., X.H., Q.S., Y.T., B.J., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.) and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases (H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Xiangya Hospital, Department of Neurology (L.H.), the Third Xiangya Hospital, Laboratory of Medical Genetics (J.X., R.D., H.J., L.S, B.T., J.W.), and Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders (J.H., L.S, B.T., J.W.), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) National Key Research and Development Program of China, #2018YFC1312003, Principal Investigator, 2018-2020 (2) Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China,#81671120,Principal Investigator, 2017-2020 (3) Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, #81300981,Principal Investigator, 2014-2016 (4) Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China,#81250015,Principal Investigator,2013 (5) Clinical Scientific Program of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, #2015105, Principal Investigator,2016-2018
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence Dr. Wang [email protected]
Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

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