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Abstract

Objective

A recent study showed glutamate receptor delta 2 antibodies (GluD2-ab) in sera of patients with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS). Inconsistencies between cerebellar immunoreactivity and expression of GluD2 led us to hypothesize that these antibodies are not biomarkers of OMS.

Methods

Serum of 45 children with OMS (10 [22%] with neuroblastoma), 158 adults with OMS (53 [34%] with tumors), and 172 controls including 134 patients with several types of neurologic disorders, 18 with neuroblastoma without OMS, and 20 healthy participants were investigated. Antibodies were determined with 3 different techniques: (1) rat brain immunohistochemistry, (2) a live cell-based assay using a standard secondary antibody (2-step CBA), and (3) a similar CBA with a secondary and tertiary antibodies (3-step CBA). Two plasmids were used in the CBA studies. Three commercial GluD2-ab and 2 human sera with GluD2-ab served as controls for expression of GluD2.

Results

The 3 commercial GluD2-ab showed predominant reactivity with the molecular and Purkinje cell layers (where GluD2 is highly enriched), and were also positive with the indicated CBAs. Substantially milder reactivity with brain tissue and CBA was obtained with the 2 control human sera containing GluD2-ab. None of the 203 patients with OMS and 172 controls showed immunoreactivities consistent with GluD2-abs. Compared with a standard 2-step CBA, the 3-step assay did not improve antibody detection and showed more frequent nonspecific reactivity that was not immunoabsorbed with GluD2.

Conclusion

We did not find GluD2-ab in a large cohort of patients with OMS. GluD2-ab should not be considered diagnostic biomarkers of OMS.

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References

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Armangue T, Sabater L, Torres-Vega E, et al. Clinical and immunological features of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome in the era of neuronal cell surface antibodies. JAMA Neurol 2016;73:417–424.
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Berridge G, Menassa DA, Moloney T, et al. Glutamate receptor delta2 serum antibodies in pediatric opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome. Neurology 2018;91:e714–e723.
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Yamasaki M, Miyazaki T, Azechi H, et al. Glutamate receptor delta2 is essential for input pathway-dependent regulation of synaptic AMPAR contents in cerebellar Purkinje cells. J Neurosci 2011;31:3362–3374.
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Nakamoto C, Konno K, Miyazaki T, et al. Expression mapping, quantification, and complex formation of GluD1 and GluD2 glutamate receptors in adult mouse brain. J Comp Neurol 2020;528:1003–1027.
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Dalmau J, Tuzun E, Wu HY, et al. Paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma. Ann Neurol 2007;61:25–36.
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Petit-Pedrol M, Armangue T, Peng X, et al. Encephalitis with refractory seizures, status epilepticus, and antibodies to the GABAA receptor: a case series, characterisation of the antigen, and analysis of the effects of antibodies. Lancet Neurol 2014;13:276–286.
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Armangue T, Titulaer MJ, Sabater L, et al. A novel treatment-responsive encephalitis with frequent opsoclonus and teratoma. Ann Neurol 2014;75:435–441.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 96Number 7February 16, 2021
Pages: e1082-e1087
PubMed: 33443132

Publication History

Received: April 14, 2020
Accepted: October 8, 2020
Published online: December 21, 2020
Published in print: February 16, 2021

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Disclosure

Dr. Dalmau holds patents for the use of Ma2, NMDAR, GABAbR, GABAaR, DPPX, and IgLON5 as autoantibody tests; receives royalties related to autoantibody tests from Athena Diagnostics and Euroimmun, Inc.; and is editor of Neurology®: Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation. Dr. Graus receives royalties from Euroimmun for the use of IgLON5 as an autoantibody test and honoraria as Assistant Editor of MedLink Neurology. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest related to this manuscript. Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures.

Study Funding

This study was supported in part by Instituto de Salud Carlos III–Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (ISCIII-FEDER; PI18/00486 to T.A., PI17/00234 to J.D.); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red para Enfermedades Raras (CB15/00010 to J.D.); La Caixa Foundation Health Research Award (LCF/PR/HR17/52150001 to J.D.); the Agència de Gestió d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca (AGAUR)–Generalitat de Catalunya (SGR93 to J.D.); Pla estratègic de recerca i innovació en salut (PERIS), Departament de Salut, Generalitat de Catalunya (SLT006/17/00362 to T.A.); a research grant from Torrons Vicens Foundation to T.A.; a grant from Pablove Foundation (689368 to T.A.); the Hospital Clinic (Resident Award “Josep Font” granted by Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Research, Innovation and Education Departments to M.G.); Foundation Edmond J Safra, and Fundació CELLEX to J.D.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

From the Neuroimmunology Program, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., A.S., F.G., J.D.), and Neurology Service (M.G., T.A., A.S., J.D.), Hospital Clínic, and Pediatric Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Pediatric Neurology (T.A., C.L.), and Department of Haematology and Oncology (A.M.L.M.), Sant Joan de Déu Children Hospital, Universitat de Barcelona; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., J.D.), Valencia; Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory (C.L.), Sant Joan de Déu Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (J.D.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) (J.D.), Barcelona, Spain. M.P.P. is currently affiliated with the Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, IINS, UMR 5297, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
From the Neuroimmunology Program, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., A.S., F.G., J.D.), and Neurology Service (M.G., T.A., A.S., J.D.), Hospital Clínic, and Pediatric Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Pediatric Neurology (T.A., C.L.), and Department of Haematology and Oncology (A.M.L.M.), Sant Joan de Déu Children Hospital, Universitat de Barcelona; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., J.D.), Valencia; Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory (C.L.), Sant Joan de Déu Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (J.D.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) (J.D.), Barcelona, Spain. M.P.P. is currently affiliated with the Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, IINS, UMR 5297, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
From the Neuroimmunology Program, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., A.S., F.G., J.D.), and Neurology Service (M.G., T.A., A.S., J.D.), Hospital Clínic, and Pediatric Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Pediatric Neurology (T.A., C.L.), and Department of Haematology and Oncology (A.M.L.M.), Sant Joan de Déu Children Hospital, Universitat de Barcelona; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., J.D.), Valencia; Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory (C.L.), Sant Joan de Déu Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (J.D.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) (J.D.), Barcelona, Spain. M.P.P. is currently affiliated with the Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, IINS, UMR 5297, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
I received speaker honnoraria from Novartis and Biogen and travel expenses for scientific meetings from Roche (not related to this study)
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
I received research support from Instituto Carlos III (PI18/00486), and Govern de la Generalitat de Catalunya (SLT006/17/00362)
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
I received research support from Mutua Madrileña Fundation AP162572016 and La Marato de TV3 foundation (263/C/2014), Torrons Vicens Foundation grant (PFNR0144), and Pablove Foundation (pC ID): 689368)
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
From the Neuroimmunology Program, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., A.S., F.G., J.D.), and Neurology Service (M.G., T.A., A.S., J.D.), Hospital Clínic, and Pediatric Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Pediatric Neurology (T.A., C.L.), and Department of Haematology and Oncology (A.M.L.M.), Sant Joan de Déu Children Hospital, Universitat de Barcelona; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., J.D.), Valencia; Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory (C.L.), Sant Joan de Déu Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (J.D.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) (J.D.), Barcelona, Spain. M.P.P. is currently affiliated with the Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, IINS, UMR 5297, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Andres Morales La Madrid, MD, PhD https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0592-673X
From the Neuroimmunology Program, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., A.S., F.G., J.D.), and Neurology Service (M.G., T.A., A.S., J.D.), Hospital Clínic, and Pediatric Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Pediatric Neurology (T.A., C.L.), and Department of Haematology and Oncology (A.M.L.M.), Sant Joan de Déu Children Hospital, Universitat de Barcelona; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., J.D.), Valencia; Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory (C.L.), Sant Joan de Déu Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (J.D.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) (J.D.), Barcelona, Spain. M.P.P. is currently affiliated with the Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, IINS, UMR 5297, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Albert Saiz, MD, PhD
From the Neuroimmunology Program, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., A.S., F.G., J.D.), and Neurology Service (M.G., T.A., A.S., J.D.), Hospital Clínic, and Pediatric Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Pediatric Neurology (T.A., C.L.), and Department of Haematology and Oncology (A.M.L.M.), Sant Joan de Déu Children Hospital, Universitat de Barcelona; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., J.D.), Valencia; Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory (C.L.), Sant Joan de Déu Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (J.D.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) (J.D.), Barcelona, Spain. M.P.P. is currently affiliated with the Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, IINS, UMR 5297, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
compensation for consulting services and speaker honoraria from Bayer-Schering, Merck-Serono, Biogen-Idec, Sanofi-Aventis, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Novartis, Alexion,and Roche
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
From the Neuroimmunology Program, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., A.S., F.G., J.D.), and Neurology Service (M.G., T.A., A.S., J.D.), Hospital Clínic, and Pediatric Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Pediatric Neurology (T.A., C.L.), and Department of Haematology and Oncology (A.M.L.M.), Sant Joan de Déu Children Hospital, Universitat de Barcelona; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., J.D.), Valencia; Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory (C.L.), Sant Joan de Déu Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (J.D.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) (J.D.), Barcelona, Spain. M.P.P. is currently affiliated with the Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, IINS, UMR 5297, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Associated Editor for MedLink Neurology
Patents:
1.
I hold a patent for the use of IgLON5 antibodies as diagnostic test
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
I receive royalties from Euroimmun for the use of IgLON5 as an autoantibody test
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
From the Neuroimmunology Program, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., A.S., F.G., J.D.), and Neurology Service (M.G., T.A., A.S., J.D.), Hospital Clínic, and Pediatric Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Pediatric Neurology (T.A., C.L.), and Department of Haematology and Oncology (A.M.L.M.), Sant Joan de Déu Children Hospital, Universitat de Barcelona; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER) (M.P.-P., M.G., T.A., J.D.), Valencia; Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory (C.L.), Sant Joan de Déu Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (J.D.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) (J.D.), Barcelona, Spain. M.P.P. is currently affiliated with the Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, IINS, UMR 5297, France.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Neurology, Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation Neurology Annals Neurology
Patents:
1.
Patent for Ma2 autoantibody test: US 6,387,639; Issued May 14th, 2002. Patent for NMDA receptor autoantibody test: US 7,972,796 B2 July 5, 2011; European 2057466. Patent for GABAb receptor autoantibody test: US 8,685,656; European 2483417; Patents filed for GABA(A) receptor autoantibody test, DPPX autoantibody test, and IgLON5 autoantibody test.
Publishing Royalties:
1.
Neurology- UpToDate, Wolters Kluwer contributing author, receive royalties Medlink Neurology contributing author, receive royalties
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Advance Medical
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Research support (allosteric modulation of NMDAR) from SAGE Therapeutics
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
-Instituto Carlos III/FEDER (FIS, 17/00234, CIBERER CB15/00010, Proyectos Integrados de Excelencia, PIE 16/00014 and AC18/00009). -Agencia de Gestio d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca (AGAUR), and CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Safra Foundation Sage therapeutics Cellex Foundation La Caixa Health Foundation
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
Ma2 autoantibody test (tech/invention), Athena Diagostics via Memoral Sloan Kettering, current NMDA receptor, GABA(B) receptor autoantibody tests (tech/invention), Euroimmun, Inc via University of Pennsylvania, current GABA(A) receptor, DPPX and IgLON5 autoantibody tests (tech/invention), Euroimmun, Inc via Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA); Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), current
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence Dr. Dalmau [email protected]
Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

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