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Abstract

Background and Objectives

Prolonged poststroke cardiac rhythm monitoring (PCM) reveals a substantial proportion of patients with ischemic stroke (IS) with atrial fibrillation (AF) not detected by conventional rhythm monitoring strategies. We evaluated the association between PCM and the institution of stroke preventive strategies and stroke recurrence.

Methods

We searched MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases to identify studies reporting stroke recurrence rates in patients with history of recent IS or TIA receiving PCM compared with patients receiving conventional cardiac rhythm monitoring. Pairwise meta-analyses were performed under the random effects model. To explore for differences between the monitoring strategies, we combined direct and indirect evidence for any given pair of monitoring devices assessed within a randomized controlled trial (RCT).

Results

We included 8 studies (5 RCTs, 3 observational; 2,994 patients). Patients receiving PCM after their index event had a higher rate of AF detection and anticoagulant initiation in RCTs (risk ratio [RR] 3.91, 95% CI 2.54–6.03; RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.66–2.80, respectively) and observational studies (RR 2.06, 95% CI 1.57–2.70; RR 2.01, 95% CI 1.43–2.83, respectively). PCM was associated with a lower risk of recurrent stroke during follow-up in observational studies (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.15–0.59), but not in RCTs (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.49–1.07). In indirect analyses of RCTs, the likelihood of AF detection and anticoagulation initiation was higher for implantable loop recorders compared with Holter monitors and external loop recorders.

Discussion

PCM after an IS or TIA can lead to higher rates of AF detection and anticoagulant initiation. There is no solid RCT evidence supporting that PCM may be associated with lower stroke recurrence risk.

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Letters to the Editor
27 March 2022
Author Response: Prolonged Cardiac Monitoring and Stroke Recurrence: A Meta-analysis
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Professor of Neurology | National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Aristeidis Katsanos, Assistant Professor of Neurology | McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute

We appreciate Dr. Meinel’s feedback on our study.1 Prevention of ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular events has been the desired objective (and component of the primary endpoint) in the majority of large-scale antithrombotic trials. Although extracranial bleeding events are more common than intracranial hemorrhage events, neurologists should remember that the latter are associated with significantly higher morbidity and mortality. According to a large cohort study of adults with atrial fibrillation hospitalized for warfarin-associated intracranial or major extracranial hemorrhage, intracranial hemorrhages caused approximately 90% of the deaths and the majority of disability among survivors.2

Likewise, in a post-hoc analysis of the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial patients were found to have a 121-fold increased 30-day adjusted mortality risk after an intracranial bleeding compared to those without intracranial bleeding, whereas the corresponding risk for patients with extracranial bleeding was 12-fold higher.3 Given that included studies in our meta-analysis were primarily designed to estimate the rate of covert atrial fibrillation uncovered by extended cardiac rhythm monitoring, and not to evaluate the impact of therapeutic decisions on clinical outcomes,1 major extracranial bleeding and mortality rates are not provided by most of them. FIND-AF reported that the number of total deaths after 12 months was six in the prolonged cardiac monitoring group versus nine in the conventional cardiac monitoring group (p=0.45).4 Similarly, identical all-cause mortality rates (2%) have been reported in both groups of the Post-Embolic Rhythm Detection with Implantable vs External Monitoring (PER DIEM) trial.5

Disclosure

The authors report no relevant disclosures. Contact [email protected] for full disclosures.  

References

  1. Tsivgoulis G, Triantafyllou S, Palaiodimou L, et al. Prolonged Cardiac Monitoring and Stroke Recurrence: A Meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2022 Mar 9]. Neurology. 2022;10.1212/WNL.0000000000200227.
  2. Fang MC, Go AS, Chang Y, et al. Death and disability from warfarin-associated intracranial and extracranial hemorrhages. Am J Med. 2007;120(8):700-705. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.07.034
  3. Held C, Hylek EM, Alexander JH, et al. Clinical outcomes and management associated with major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with apixaban or warfarin: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial. Eur Heart J. 2015;36(20):1264-1272. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu463
  4. Wachter R, Gröschel K, Gelbrich G, et al. Holter-electrocardiogram-monitoring in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (Find-AFRANDOMISED): an open-label randomised controlled trial [published correction appears in Lancet Neurol. 2017 Apr;16(4):261]. Lancet Neurol. 2017;16(4):282-290. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30002-9
  5. Buck BH, Hill MD, Quinn FR, et al. Effect of Implantable vs Prolonged External Electrocardiographic Monitoring on Atrial Fibrillation Detection in Patients With Ischemic Stroke: The PER DIEM Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021;325(21):2160-2168. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.6128
27 March 2022
Author Response: Prolonged Cardiac Monitoring and Stroke Recurrence: A Meta-analysis
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Professor of Neurology | National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Aristeidis Katsanos, Assistant Professor of Neurology | McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute

We would like to thank Dr. Scharf for the supportive comments on our work.1 We agree that analyses on other heart rhythm markers of atrial cardiopathy apart from atrial fibrillation would be of interest. However, due to the paucity of evidence on the clinical impact of these markers on patient outcomes, no meaningful conclusions can be derived at this time. The impact of anticoagulation on stroke recurrence in patients with evidence of atrial cardiopathy is currently being investigated in the ongoing Atrial Cardiopathy and Antithrombotic Drugs in Prevention after Cryptogenic Stroke (ARCADIA) trial (NCT03192215). Indeed, delineating recurrent stroke mechanisms in outcome events is important, but the reduction of the overall stroke risk burden should still be the primary endpoint for a large randomized controlled clinical trial. As stated in the conclusions of our abstract and highlighted by Dr. Scharf, the stroke community should wait for robust evidence from large-scale trials evaluating the potential benefit of anticoagulation initiation prompted by prolonged cardiac monitoring within stroke prevention practices.

Disclosure

The authors report no relevant disclosures. Contact [email protected] for full disclosures.  

References

  1. Tsivgoulis G, Triantafyllou S, Palaiodimou L, et al. Prolonged Cardiac Monitoring and Stroke Recurrence: A Meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2022 Mar 9]. Neurology. 2022;10.1212/WNL.0000000000200227.
17 March 2022
Reader Response: Prolonged Cardiac Monitoring and Stroke Recurrence: A Meta-analysis
Eugene L Scharf, Neurologist | Mayo Clinic

Tsivgoulis et al. should be commended for this meta-analysis follow-up to their 2019 work, which demonstrates the utility of prolonged cardiac monitoring for the goal of stroke secondary prevention.1 For those of us who navigate these clinical waters on a regular basis, it is refreshing to read our daily conundrum so precisely summarized. It would be a welcome addition to this analysis to include other common heart rhythm markers of cardiopathy (AT, PACs, high-burden PVC) encountered on short term and 30-day monitors that are often used to justify the cost, risk, and inconvenience of ILR use.

Regarding patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation, more precise correlation of the atrial fibrillation (including burden) with markers of cardiopathy would inform this decision. In many of these studies, it is assumed that anticoagulation is sufficient to prevent stroke recurrence once atrial fibrillation is detected; however, I would note the importance of differentiating study endpoints from non-cardioembolic recurrent stroke mechanisms such as large and small artery disease, which are not described in the implantable loop recorder (ILR) randomized controlled trial (RCT) in cryptogenic stroke (CS) outcome data. If the eTable summarizing total follow-up duration for anticoagulation exposure in the atrial fibrillation groups and the CHADSVASC scores are unavailable, the stroke community may have to wait longer to observe the benefit of anticoagulation for stroke prevention in subclinical atrial fibrillation (SCAF). At this time, anticoagulation provides no clear benefit for reduction of stroke recurrence for device-detected atrial fibrillation, though it is encouraging to know it may not cause substantial harm either, given the aggregate safety profile reported here.

Disclosure

The author reports no relevant disclosures. Contact [email protected] for full disclosures.

References

  1. Tsivgoulis G, Triantafyllou S, Palaiodimou L, et al. Prolonged Cardiac Monitoring and Stroke Recurrence: A Meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2022 Mar 9]. Neurology. 2022;10.1212/WNL.0000000000200227.
14 March 2022
Reader Response: Prolonged Cardiac Monitoring and Stroke Recurrence: A Meta-analysis
Thomas Raphael Meinel, Vascular Neurologist | Stroke Research Center Bern

I read with interest the study by Tsivgoulis et al. which summarizes the available evidence on prolonged cardiac monitoring after stroke. However, I think that the decision to look at recurrent stroke as the primary outcome and only consider intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) as a safety outcome might overestimate the benefit of prolonged monitoring.

Neurologists must not forget that the ratio of intracranial hemorrhages to major extracranial bleedings is about 1:8, according to several studies.2-4 ROCKET-AF had 55 intracranial hemorrhages and 395 major bleedings,2 RE-LY found roughly 10x more major bleedings than intracranial hemorrhages,3 and ARISTOTLE revealed 52 ICH as compared to 275 other ISTH major bleedings.4

I suggest that the authors report additional data, adding major bleeding and death as outcomes. Reporting the net benefit of stroke reduction (major bleeding and/or death) for monitoring strategies might be more relevant for patients and caregivers than a neurologic blinkered analysis on recurrent stroke and intracranial hemorrhage.

Disclosure

The author reports no relevant disclosures. Contact [email protected] for full disclosures.  

References

  1. Tsivgoulis G, Triantafyllou S, Palaiodimou L, et al. Prolonged Cardiac Monitoring and Stroke Recurrence: A Meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2022 Mar 9]. Neurology. 2022;10.1212/WNL.0000000000200227.
  2. Patel MR, Mahaffey KW, Garg J, et al. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(10):883-891. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1009638
  3. Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(12):1139-1151. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0905561
  4. Granger CB, Alexander JH, McMurray JJ, et al. Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(11):981-992. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1107039

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 98Number 19May 10, 2022
Pages: e1942-e1952
PubMed: 35264426

Publication History

Received: October 6, 2021
Accepted: February 1, 2022
Published online: March 9, 2022
Published in print: May 10, 2022

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Disclosure

S. Yaghi reports unfunded research collaboration with Medtronic, Inc. R. Wachter reports speaker fees from Bayer, Inc., Daiichi, Inc., Medtronic, Pfizer, Inc., and Boehringer Ingelheim, Inc.; honoraria from Boehringer Ingelheim, Inc.; advisory board fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, Inc. and Medtronic, Inc.; and his institution (University of Leipzig) received a research grant from Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and Medtronic Inc. D.J. Gladstone was supported by a Mid-Career Award from the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada; serves as a Canadian national co-leader of the NINDS-sponsored ARCADIA trial; and is PI of the CSPIN-sponsored SCREEN-AF trial. P.D. Schellinger reports speaker fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, Inc., Astra Zeneca, AbbVie, and Daiichi, Inc.; advisory board fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, Inc., Astra Zeneca, AbbVie, and Daiichi, Inc.; and independent expert witness fees from the German Court. D. Aguiar de Sousa reports travel support from Boehringer Ingelheim, advisory board fees from AstraZeneca, and DSMB participation for the SECRET trial. G. Tsivgoulis reports speaker fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, Inc., Medtronic, Inc., Pfizer, Inc., and Bayer, Inc.; advisory board fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, Inc., Daiichi, Inc., Medtronic, Inc., and Bayer, Inc.; an unrestricted research grant from Medtronic, Inc.; and serves on the European Stroke Organization Industry Roundtable. The remaining authors report no disclosures relevant to the article. Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures.

Study Funding

The authors report no targeted funding.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Georgios Tsivgoulis, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Sokratis Triantafyllou, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Lina Palaiodimou, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Brian Mac Grory, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Spyridon Deftereos, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Martin Köhrmann, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Polychronis Dilaveris, MD https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0399-4111
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Brittany Ricci, BS
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Konstantinos Tsioufis, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Shawna Cutting, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Peter D. Schellinger, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Efthymios Dardiotis, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Ana Rodriguez-Campello, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Diana Aguiar de Sousa, MD https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6702-7924
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
David J. Gladstone, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Tommaso Sanna, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Karen L. Furie, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Andrei V. Alexandrov, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Shadi Yaghi, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Aristeidis H. Katsanos, MD
From the Second Department of Neurology (G.T., S.T., L.P., A.H.K.) and Second Department of Cardiology (S.D.), School of Medicine, “Attikon” Hospital, First Department of Cardiology (P.D., K.T.), School of Medicine, Hippokration Hospital, and Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School (G.M.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Department of Neurology (G.T., A.V.A.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Duke University School of Medicine (B.M.G.), Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Department of Neurology (B.R., S.C., K.L.F.), Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Neurology (C.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum; Departments of Neurology and Neurogeriatry (P.D.S.), Johannes Wesling Medical Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Minden, Germany; Department of Neurology (E.D.), University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Stroke Unit (A.R.-C., E.C.-G.), Department of Neurology, Group of Research on Neurovascular Diseases, Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute. DCEX, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences (Neurology) (D.A.d.S.), Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Division of Neurology (M.S., A.H.K.), McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton; Sunnybrook Research Institute and Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program (D.J.G.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS (T.S.); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (T.S.), Institute of Cardiology, Rome, Italy; Clinic and Policlinic for Cardiology (R.W.), University Hospital Leipzig, Germany; and Department of Neurology (S.Y.), New York University School of Medicine, NY.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
<br>Zogenix - Advisory board<br>Neurocrin - Advisory Board<br>Greenwich - Advisory Board<br>Biomarin - Speaker Bureau<br>
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
<br>Neurology 2012 - Editorial board<br>
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
<br>Pediatric Epilepsy Research Foundation (PERF) completed 12-2021<br>
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence Dr. Tsivgoulis [email protected]
Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.
Submitted and externally peer reviewed. The handling editor was José Merino, MD, MPhil.

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