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Abstract

Background and Objective

While underlying pathophysiology linking obesity to brain health is not completely understood, white adipose tissue (WAT) is considered a key player. In obesity, WAT becomes dysregulated, showing hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and eventually inflammation. This disbalance leads to dysregulated secretion of adipokines influencing both (cardio)vascular and brain health. Within this study, we investigated the association between omental WAT (oWAT) and subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) with brain structure and perfusion and cognition in adults with severe obesity.

Methods

Within the cross-sectional BARICO study, brain structure and perfusion and cognitive function were measured before bariatric surgery (BS) using MRI and cognitive assessments. During BS, oWAT and scWAT depots were collected and analyzed by histopathology. The number and diameter of adipocytes were quantified together with the amount of crown-like structures (CLS) as an indication of inflammation. Blood samples were collected to analyze adipokines and inflammatory markers. Neuroimaging outcomes included brain volumes, cortical thickness, white matter (WM) integrity, WM hyperintensities, cerebral blood flow using arterial spin labeling (ASL), and the ASL spatial coefficient of variation (sCoV), reflecting cerebrovascular health.

Results

Seventy-one patients were included (mean age 45.1 ± 5.8 years; 83.1% women; mean body mass index 40.8 ± 3.8 kg/m2). scWAT showed more CLS (z = −2.72, p < 0.01, r = −0.24) and hypertrophy compared with oWAT (F(1,64) = 3.99, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.06). Adiponectin levels were inversely associated with the average diameter of scWAT (β = −0.31, 95% CI −0.54 to −0.08) and oWAT (β = −0.33, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.09). Furthermore, the adipocyte diameter in oWAT was positively associated with the sCoV in the parietal cortex (β = 0.33, 95% CI 0.10–0.60), and the number of adipocytes (per mm2) was positively associated with sCoV in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) (β = 0.34, 95% CI 0.09–0.61). Cognitive function did not correlate with any WAT parameter or plasma marker. These associations were highly influenced by age and sex. sCoV in the NAcc was positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (β = 0.35, 95% CI 0.10–0.56).

Discussion

scWAT and oWAT are different in morphology and in their relationship with plasma markers and cerebrovascular health. Although scWAT showed more CLS and hypertrophy, scWAT was not associated with brain readouts. This study showed, however, important relationships between oWAT morphology and cerebrovascular health in obesity.

Trial Registration Information

Trial Registration Number NTR7288 (trialregister.nl/trial/7090).

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 100Number 7February 14, 2023
Pages: e703-e718
PubMed: 36332987

Publication History

Received: April 22, 2022
Accepted: September 23, 2022
Published online: November 4, 2022
Published in print: February 14, 2023

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Disclosure

Henk-Jan M.M. Mutsaerts is supported by the Dutch Heart Foundation (03-004-2020-T049); the other authors report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures.

Study Funding

This work is supported by a grant of the Rijnstate-Radboudumc promotion fund. The histopathologic and biochemical analyses were performed in collaboration with the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) Metabolic Health Research (Leiden, the Netherlands) with support from TNO's Research programs Biomedical Health (PMC13), ERP Body Brain Interactions, and the Shared Research Program GLoBAL, an initiative of Radboudumc, Rijnstate, and TNO. H. Mutsaerts is supported by the Dutch Heart Foundation (03-004-2020-T049).

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Debby Vreeken, MSc*
From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
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None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
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1.
None
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
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1.
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Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
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Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
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1.
None
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Florine Seidel, MSc*
From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
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Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
None
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Guido de La Roij, MSc
From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
None
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
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Wouter Vening, MD
From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
None
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
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Willem A. den Hengst, MD, PhD
From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
None
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
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From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
None
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
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NONE
Serdar Özsezen, Msc
From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
None
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Roy P.C. Kessels, PhD
From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) Benecke; speaker and travel honorarium
Editorial Boards:
1.
(1) Neuropsychology Review, Associate editor, 2020-(2) Journal of Clinical Medicine, Associate editor, 2022-(3) Journal of the International Neuropsychological, Society, Editorial board member, 2013-(4) Tijdschrift voor Neuropsychology, advisory board member, 2010-(5) Cognitive processing, Handling editor, 2004-2021
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
(1) Errorless learning: Mechanisms, efficacy and application, Taylor & Francis, 2018(2) (Op)nieuw geleerd, oud gedaan: Over het lerend vermogen van mensen met dementie, Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum, 2020(3) Location Learning Test - Revised, Hogrefe Publishing, 2011/2012/2015(4) Wat kun je doen aan dementie?, Lannoo Campus, 2018
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
(1) Tactus Addiction Care, supervisor clinical neuropsychology(2) Klimmendaal Rehabilitation Specialists, supervisor clinical neuropsychology(3) Viecuri Hospital, supervisor clinical neuropsychology(4) GGZ Eindhoven/Libra, supervisor clinical neuropsychology(5) Pro Persona, supervisor clinical neuropsychology(6) GGNet, supervisor clinical neuropsychology
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), applicant, Gravitation Grant (024.001.006) of the Language in Interaction Consortium 2016-2020(2) EFRO/OP Oost, EFRO-00928 2019-
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
None
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) Bayer Vital GmbH, honoraria for lectures, (2) Sanofi, honoraria for lectures
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
Medical Image Analyses Center (MIAC AG), Chief Scientific Officer, 2 years
Consultancies:
1.
(1) Roche Pharma, (2) Hovid Berhad
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
None
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Henk J.M.M. Mutsaerts, MD, PhD https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0894-0307
From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
HM is supported by the Dutch Heart Foundation (03-004-2020-T049), by the Eurostars-2 joint programme with co-funding from the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (ASPIRE E!113701), provided by the Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RvO), and by the EU Joint Program for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, provided by the Netherlands Organisation for health Research and Development and Alzheimer Nederland (DEBBIE JPND2020-568-106).
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
None
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Robert Kleemann, PhD
From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
None
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Maximilian Wiesmann, PhD
From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
(1)Alzheimer Nederland: Long Fellowship (WE.15-2021-10)
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Eric J. Hazebroek, MD, PhD https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5458-3334
From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
None
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Amanda J. Kiliaan, PhD
From the Department of Medical Imaging (D.V., F.S., G.L.R., M.W., A.J.K.), Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Bariatric Surgery (D.V., W.V., W.A.H., E.J.H.), Vitalys, Part of Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain (D.V., F.S., R.P.C.K., M.W., A.J.K.), Cognition, and Behavior and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Metabolic Health Research (F.S., R.K.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Leiden; Department of Microbiology and Systems Biology (L.V., S.Ö.), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Zeist; Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry (R.P.C.K.), Venray, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology and Radboudumc Alzheimer Center (R.P.C.K.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) and Qbig (M.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.J.M.M.M.), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands; and Division of Human Nutrition and Health (E.J.H.), Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
None
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
None
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
None
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence Dr. Kiliaan [email protected]
Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.
*
The authors contributed equally to this work as first authors.
These authors contributed equally to this work as senior authors.
Submitted and externally peer reviewed. The handling editor was Linda Hershey, MD, PhD, FAAN.

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