Skip to main content
AAN.com

Abstract

Objective:

To describe 16 patients with a coincidence of 2 rare diseases: aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab)–mediated neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4-NMOSD) and acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChR-Ab)–mediated myasthenia gravis (AChR-MG).

Methods:

The clinical details and antibody results of 16 patients with AChR-MG and AQP4-NMOSD were analyzed retrospectively.

Results:

All had early-onset AChR-MG, the majority with mild generalized disease, and a high proportion achieved remission. Fifteen were female; 11 were Caucasian. In 14/16, the MG preceded NMOSD (median interval: 16 years) and 11 of these had had a thymectomy although 1 only after NMOSD onset. In 4/5 patients tested, AQP4-Abs were detectable between 4 and 16 years prior to disease onset, including 2 patients with detectable AQP4-Abs prior to thymectomy. AChR-Abs decreased and the AQP4-Ab levels increased over time in concordance with the relevant disease. AChR-Abs were detectable at NMOSD onset in the one sample available from 1 of the 2 patients with NMOSD before MG.

Conclusions:

Although both conditions are rare, the association of MG and NMOSD occurs much more frequently than by chance and the MG appears to follow a benign course. AChR-Abs or AQP4-Abs may be present years before onset of the relevant disease and the antibody titers against AQP4 and AChR tend to change in opposite directions. Although most cases had MG prior to NMOSD onset, and had undergone thymectomy, NMOSD can occur first and in patients who have not had their thymus removed.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.

Supplementary Material

File (table_e-1.doc)
File (table_e-2.doc)
File (table_e-3.doc)

REFERENCES

1.
Wingerchuk DM, Hogancamp WF, O'Brien PC, Weinshenker BG. The clinical course of neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome). Neurology 1999; 53: 1107– 1114.
2.
Waters P, Jarius S, Littleton E, et al. Aquaporin-4 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Arch Neurol 2008; 65: 913– 919.
3.
Lennon VA, Wingerchuk DM, Kryzer TJ, et al. A serum autoantibody marker of neuromyelitis optica: distinction from multiple sclerosis. Lancet 2004; 364: 2106– 2112.
4.
Lennon VA, Kryzer TJ, Pittock SJ, Verkman AS, Hinson SR. IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel. J Exp Med 2005; 202: 473– 477.
5.
Wingerchuk DM, Lennon VA, Pittock SJ, Lucchinetti CF, Weinshenker BG. Revised diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica. Neurology 2006; 66: 1485– 1489.
6.
Wingerchuk DM, Lennon VA, Lucchinetti CF, Pittock SJ, Weinshenker BG. The spectrum of neuromyelitis optica. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 805– 815.
7.
Kinoshita M, Nakatsuji Y, Kimura T, et al. Neuromyelitis optica: Passive transfer to rats by human immunoglobulin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009; 386: 623– 627.
8.
Bradl M, Misu T, Takahashi T, et al. Neuromyelitis optica: pathogenicity of patient immunoglobulin in vivo. Ann Neurol 2009; 66: 630– 643.
9.
Saadoun S, Waters P, Bell BA, Vincent A, Verkman AS, Papadopoulos MC. Intra-cerebral injection of neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G and human complement produces neuromyelitis optica lesions in mice. Brain 2010; 133: 349– 361.
10.
Jarius S, Wildemann B. AQP4 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica: diagnostic and pathogenetic relevance. Nat Rev Neurol 2010; 6: 383– 392.
11.
Hoedemaekers AC, van Breda Vriesman PJ, De Baets MH. Myasthenia gravis as a prototype autoimmune receptor disease. Immunol Res 1997; 16: 341– 354.
12.
McKeon A, Lennon VA, Jacob A, et al. Coexistence of myasthenia gravis and serological markers of neurological autoimmunity in neuromyelitis optica. Muscle Nerve 2009; 39: 87– 90.
13.
Pittock SJ, Lennon VA, de Seze J, et al. Neuromyelitis optica and non organ-specific autoimmunity. Arch Neurol 2008; 65: 78– 83.
14.
Nakamura H, Usa T, Motomura M, et al. Prevalence of interrelated autoantibodies in thyroid diseases and autoimmune disorders. J Endocrinol Invest 2008; 31: 861– 865.
15.
Thorlacius S, Aarli JA, Riise T, Matre R, Johnsen HJ. Associated disorders in myasthenia gravis: autoimmune diseases and their relation to thymectomy. Acta Neurol Scand 1989; 80: 290– 295.
16.
Nakamura M, Nakashima I, Sato S, Miyazawa I, Fujihara K, Itoyama Y. Clinical and laboratory features of neuromyelitis optica with oligoclonal IgG bands. Mult Scler 2007; 13: 332– 335.
17.
Kay CS, Scola RH, Lorenzoni PJ, Jarius S, Arruda WO, Werneck LC. NMO-IgG positive neuromyelitis optica in a patient with myasthenia gravis but no thymectomy. J Neurol Sci 2008; 275: 148– 150.
18.
Uzawa A, Mori M, Iwai Y, et al. Association of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica with myasthenia gravis. J Neurol Sci 2009; 287: 105– 107.
19.
Kister I, Gulati S, Boz C, et al. Neuromyelitis optica in patients with myasthenia gravis who underwent thymectomy. Arch Neurol 2006; 63: 851– 856.
20.
Gotkine M, Fellig Y, Abramsky O. Occurrence of CNS demyelinating disease in patients with myasthenia gravis. Neurology 2006; 67: 881– 883.
21.
Waters P, McKeon A, Leite M, et al. Serologic diagnosis of NMO: a multicenter comparison of aquaporin-4-IgG assays. Neurology 2012; 78: 665– 671.
22.
Vincent A, Buckley C, Schott JM, et al. Potassium channel antibody-associated encephalopathy: a potentially immunotherapy-responsive form of limbic encephalitis. Brain 2004; 127: 701– 712.
23.
Beekman R, Kuks JB, Oosterhuis HJ. Myasthenia gravis: diagnosis and follow-up of 100 consecutive patients. J Neurol 1997; 244: 112– 118.
24.
Kitley J, Leite MI, Nakashima I, et al. Prognostic factors and disease course in 106 aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients from the United Kingdom and Japan Brain (in press 2012).
25.
Vincent A, Newsom-Davis J. Acetylcholine receptor antibody characteristics in myasthenia gravis: I: patients with generalized myasthenia or disease restricted to ocular muscles. Clin Exp Immunol 1982; 49: 257– 265.
26.
Hinson SR, Pittock SJ, Lucchinetti CF, et al. Pathogenic potential of IgG binding to water channel extracellular domain in neuromyelitis optica. Neurology 2007; 69: 2221– 2231.
27.
Asgari N, Lillevang ST, Skejoe HP, Falah M, Stenager E, Kyvik KO. A population-based study of neuromyelitis optica in Caucasians. Neurology 2011; 76: 1589– 1595.
28.
Collongues N, Marignier R, Zephir H, et al. Neuromyelitis optica in France: a multicenter study of 125 patients. Neurology 2010; 74: 736– 742.
29.
Schluep M, Willcox N, Vincent A, Dhoot GK, Newsom-Davis J. Acetylcholine receptors in human thymic myoid cells in situ: an immunohistological study. Ann Neurol 1987; 22: 212– 222.
30.
Wekerle H, Ketelsen UP. Intrathymic pathogenesis and dual genetic control of myasthenia gravis. Lancet 1977; 1: 678– 680.
31.
Leite MI, Jones M, Strobel P, et al. Myasthenia gravis thymus: complement vulnerability of epithelial and myoid cells, complement attack on them, and correlations with autoantibody status. Am J Pathol 2007; 171: 893– 905.
32.
Roxanis I, Micklem K, McConville J, Newsom-Davis J, Willcox N. Thymic myoid cells and germinal center formation in myasthenia gravis; possible roles in pathogenesis. J Neuroimmunol 2002; 125: 185– 197.
33.
Giraud M, Taubert R, Vandiedonck C, et al. An IRF8-binding promoter variant and AIRE control CHRNA1 promiscuous expression in thymus. Nature 2007; 448: 934– 937.
34.
Chan KH, Kwan JS, Ho PW, et al. Aquaporin-4 water channel expression by thymoma of patients with and without myasthenia gravis. J Neuroimmunol 2010; 227: 178– 184.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 78Number 20May 15, 2012
Pages: 1601-1607
PubMed: 22551731

Publication History

Received: July 28, 2011
Accepted: December 29, 2011
Published online: May 2, 2012
Published in print: May 15, 2012

Permissions

Request permissions for this article.

Disclosure

Dr. Leite, Dr. Coutinho, Prof. Lana-Peixoto, Dr. Apostolos, and Dr. Waters report no disclosures. Dr. Sato receives scholarship from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology of Japan (MEXT) and research support from Ichiro Kanehara Foundation. Dr. Melamud reports no disclosures. Dr. Marta receives fellowship from Merck-Serono UK for an Investigator-Led Study. Dr. Graham reports no disclosures. Dr. Spillane receives a grant from Myasthenia Gravis Association, UK. Dr. Villa reports no disclosures. Prof. Callegaro has received travel grant support and scholarships for congresses and teaching activities from Bayer, Biogen, Merck, Novartis, and Teva. Dr. Santos, Dr. Martins da Silva, Dr. Jarius, and Dr. Howard report no disclosures. Dr. Nakashima has received funding for travel and received speaker honoraria from Bayer Schering Pharma and Biogen Idec; and has received research funding from Mitsubishi Chemical Medience Corporation and the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of Japan. Prof. Giovannoni has received research grant support from Bayer-Schering Healthcare, Biogen-Idec, GW Pharma, Merck Serono, Merz, Novartis, Teva, and Sanofi-Aventis. He has received personal compensation for participating on advisory boards in relation to clinical trial design, trial steering committees, and data and safety monitoring committees from Bayer-Schering Healthcare, Biogen-Idec, Eisai, Elan, Fiveprime, Genzyme, Genentech, GSK, Ironwood, Merck-Serono, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi-Aventis, Synthon BV, Teva, UCB Pharma, and Vertex Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Buckley is funded by the Medical Research Council of United Kingdom. Dr. Hilton-Jones reports no disclosures. Prof. Vincent and the Department of Clinical Neurology in Oxford hold patents and receive royalties and payments for performing antibody assays. Dr. Palace has received support for MS-related scientific meetings and honorariums for advisory committees from Merck Serono, Biogen Idec, Novartis, Teva, and Bayer Schering and support for investigator-led research from Merck Serono and Bayer Schering. Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

M.I. Leite, DPhil
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Received funding for travel and congress fee in UK from Biogen in 2011; Received funding for travel and speaker honorarium from Biogen Idec, Japan in 2011
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Oxford Biomedical Research Centre: sub-investigator in an MS Trial (2009-); National Commissioning Group - Diagnostic and advisory service for patients with NMO (2010-)
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Sir Halley Stewart Trust, UK (2007-2010)
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
E. Coutinho, MD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
European Federation of Neurological Societies educational fellowship 2010
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
M. Lana-Peixoto, PhD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Teva, 2010-2011; Novartis, 2011
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, editorial board, last five years
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
S. Apostolos, MD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Bayer, advisory board, 2011; Biogen Idec, advisory board, 2011
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
P. Waters, PhD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Frontiers in molecular innate immunity, Review editor, <1 yr
Patents:
1.
Assays for the detection of antibodies to lgi1, Caspr2 and tag-1.
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
D. Sato, MD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT) in Japan, Japanese Government Scholarship Program, 4 years (2010 - 2014)
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Ichiro Kanehara Foundation
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
L. Melamud, MD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
M. Marta, PhD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Abbott Laboratories Ltd, travel funding to attend a conference
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Merck-Serono UK paid my salary through funding for an Investigator-Led Study
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
A. Graham, MD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
J. Spillane, MD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Myasthenia Gravis Association, funding for travel to conference, 2011
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Myasthenia Gravis Association funds my research and post as a Clinical Research Associate in the Institute of Neurology Queen Square, 2009 to present
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
A.M. Villa, MD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
D. Callegaro, PhD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Biogen; Bayer Schering; Teva; Novartis
Gifts:
1.
Biogen; Bayer Schering; Teva; Novartis
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Biogen; Bayer Schering; Teva; Novartis
Editorial Boards:
1.
BCTRIMS Speakers’ Bureaus:; Biogen; Bayer Schering; Novartis
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
E. Santos, MD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
A. Martins da Silva, MD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Scientific advisory committees:; Merck Serono; Biogen Idec; Novartis; Teva
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Support to attend scientific advisory meetings:; Merck Serono; Biogen Idec; Novartis; Teva
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
S. Jarius, MD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Bayer Healthcare; Merck Serono
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
European Society of Neurology (ENS); European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS)
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
R. Howard, MD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
I. Nakashima, PhD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Bayer Yakuhin, Ltd: funding for travel and speaker honoraria; Biogen Idec Japan: funding for travel and speaker honoraria
Editorial Boards:
1.
Multiple Sclerosis International, editorial board, 2010-present
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Mitsubishi Chemical Medience Corporation
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of Japan, 21790828, 2009-2010
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
G. Giovannoni, PhD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Merck-Serono; Biogen Idec
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Speaker honoraria:; Bayer-Schering Healthcare; Merck-Serono; Biogen-Idec; Pfizer; Teva- Aventis; Vertex; Genzyme; Ironwood; Novartis
Editorial Boards:
1.
Multiple Sclerosis, Editorial Board, 2006-2009
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Vertex Pharmaceuticals; GW Pharma; Novartis; FivePrime Speakers’ Bureaus:; Serono Symposium
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Bayer-Schering Healthcare, 2006-2008; Biogen- Idec, 2007-2011; Merck-Serono, 2006-2012; Novartis, 2006-2012; Teva-Aventis, 2005-2008; GW Pharma, 2010; Ironwood, 2008-2012
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
C. Buckley, DPhil
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Medical Research Council UK Clinician Scientist Fellowship 2006-2013
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
D. Hilton-Jones, MD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Genzyme Corporation, speaker honorarium
Editorial Boards:
1.
Editorial Advisoy Board, Neuromuscular Disorders since 2004. No financial compensation; Editorial Board, Practical Neurology, since 2000. No financial compensation.
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
Disorders of Voluntary Muscle - several editions in last 20 years from Churchill Livingstone and Cambridge University Press
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Association Francaise contre les myopathies
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
A. Vincent, FRS, FMedSci
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Patrick Berthoud Trust Chair 2000-2009. Now ended MGFA SAB Member 2005-2009
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Travel and speaker honorarium, Baxter, 2009
Editorial Boards:
1.
Associate Editor Brain
Patents:
1.
MuSK antibodies 2001 US Patent #7267820 (Issued 9/11/07) CASPR2, Lgi1, Contactin2 antibodies 2008 JA46294P.GBA
Publishing Royalties:
1.
Clinical Neuroimmunology Blackwells 2005 Dale and Vincent Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disorders of the Nervous System in Children Mac Keith Press 2010
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Athena Diagnostics
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
The neuroimmunology service that I direct brings in income to my department
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Euroimmun AG, 2010/2011; NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, 2007-present
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
EU network grant
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NIHR Biomedical Research Centre Oxford
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Sir Halley Stewart Trust
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
Musk antibody royalties from Athena Diagnostics Musk antibody royalties from RSR Ltd, Cardiff, UK paid to university Possible future LGI1/CASPR2/Contactin-2 royalties from Euroimmun AG
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
J. Palace, MD
From the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (M.I.L., P.W., C.B., D.H.-J., A.V., J.P.), John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Neurology (E.C., E.S., A.M.d.S.), Centro Hospitalar Porto, University of Porto, Portugal; CIEM MS Research Center (M.L.-P.), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; Department of Neurology (S.A., D.S., D.C.), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Neurology (D.S., I.N.), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Unidad de Neuroinmunologia (L.M., A.M.V.), Hospital Ramos Mejia, and Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Neuroimmunology Unit (M.M., G.G.), Neurosciences & Trauma Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Ipswich & Addenbrooke's Hospitals, Ipswitch; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (J.S., R.H.), UCLH, Queen Square, London, UK; and Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
UK advisory board participant:; Merck Serono; Bayer Schering Pharma; Biogen Idec; Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.; Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd; Sanofi-Aventis
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Support for attending ECTRIMS Serono 2008 and 2009
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Department of Health Risk Sharing Scheme, Clinical Coordinator since 2002
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
MS Society
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Study funding: Drs. M.I.L., P.W., and J.P. and Prof. A.V. are supported by the National Specialized Commissioning Group for NMO, NHS, UK.
Correspondence & reprint requests to Dr. Palace: [email protected]

Author Contributions

Dr. Leite: study concept, acquisition of clinical and laboratory data, analysis of data, drafting and revising the manuscript. Dr. Coutinho: acquisition of clinical data, analysis of data, drafting the manuscript. Prof. Lana-Peixoto: acquisition of clinical data, revising the manuscript. Dr. Apostolos: acquisition of clinical data, analysis of data, revising the manuscript. Dr. Waters: supervision and acquisition of laboratory data, revising the manuscript. Dr. Sato: acquisition of clinical data, analysis of data, drafting and revising the manuscript. Dr. Melamud: acquisition of clinical data, revising the manuscript. Dr. Marta: acquisition of clinical data, revising the manuscript. Dr. Graham: acquisition of clinical data, revising the manuscript. Dr. Spillane: acquisition of clinical data. Dr. Villa: acquisition of clinical data, revising the manuscript. Prof. Callegaro: acquisition of clinical data, revising the manuscript. Dr. Santos: acquisition of clinical data. Dr. Martins da Silva: acquisition of clinical data. Dr. Jarius: study concept, revising the manuscript. Dr. Howard: acquisition of clinical data, revising the manuscript. Dr. Nakashima: study concept, acquisition of clinical data, revising the manuscript. Prof. Giovannoni: acquisition of clinical data, revising the manuscript. Dr. Buckley: acquisition of clinical data, revising the manuscript. Dr. Hilton-Jones: acquisition of clinical data, revising the manuscript. Prof. Vincent: study concept, study supervision, analysis and interpretation of laboratory data, revising manuscript. Dr. Palace: study supervision, analysis and interpretation of clinical data, revising manuscript.

Metrics & Citations

Metrics

Citations

Download Citations

If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Select your manager software from the list below and click Download.

Cited By
  1. Updates in NMOSD and MOGAD Diagnosis and Treatment, Neurologic Clinics, 42, 1, (77-114), (2024).https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2023.06.009
    Crossref
  2. Neuromielitis óptica y lupus eritematoso sistémico: caso clínico, Gaceta Médica Boliviana, 46, 1, (117-120), (2023).https://doi.org/10.47993/gmb.v46i1.642
    Crossref
  3. Clinical Profile and Quality of Life in Myasthenia Gravis Using MGQOL15 R(Hindi): An Indian Perspective, Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 26, 4, (441-446), (2023).https://doi.org/10.4103/aian.aian_945_22
    Crossref
  4. Case report: COPA syndrome with interstitial lung disease, skin involvement, and neuromyelitis spectrum disorder, Frontiers in Pediatrics, 11, (2023).https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2023.1118097
    Crossref
  5. Reduced quality of life in myasthenia gravis patients: A study on 185 patients from China, Frontiers in Neurology, 13, (2023).https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.1072861
    Crossref
  6. Clinical features of myasthenia gravis with neurological and systemic autoimmune diseases, Frontiers in Immunology, 14, (2023).https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2023.1223322
    Crossref
  7. The Role of MRI in Differentiating Demyelinating and Inflammatory (not Infectious) Myelopathies, Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI, 44, 5, (469-488), (2023).https://doi.org/10.1053/j.sult.2023.03.017
    Crossref
  8. Associations of myeloid cells with cellular and humoral responses following vaccinations in patients with neuroimmunological diseases, Nature Communications, 14, 1, (2023).https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-43553-z
    Crossref
  9. Prodromes in demyelinating disorders, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson disease, and Alzheimer's dementia, Revue Neurologique, (2023).https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurol.2023.07.002
    Crossref
  10. A multicentre, prospective, double-blind study comparing the accuracy of autoantibody diagnostic assays in myasthenia gravis: the SCREAM study, The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific, 38, (100846), (2023).https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2023.100846
    Crossref
  11. See more
Loading...

View Options

Get Access

Login options

Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution to get full access on this article.

Personal login Institutional Login
Purchase Options

Purchase this article to get full access to it.

Purchase Access, $39 for 24hr of access

View options

Full Text

View Full Text

Full Text HTML

View Full Text HTML

Media

Figures

Other

Tables

Share

Share

Share article link

Share