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Abstract

Objective:

To investigate distinct white matter and cortical gray matter pathology in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) and multiple sclerosis (MS) at 7-T MRI in a cross-sectional study.

Methods:

We included 10 patients with NMOSDs and 18 patients with MS in our 7-T MRI study. The imaging protocol comprised T2*-weighted fast low angle shot and turbo inversion recovery magnitude sequences. White matter and cortical gray matter lesions were assessed with special regard to their (perivascular) localization as well as the expression of a hypointense rim.

Results:

In total, we detected 140 white matter lesions in 7 of 10 patients with NMOSDs. In contrast to MS plaques, which were nearly exclusively centered by a small vein (92%) and showed a characteristic hypointense rim (23%), white matter changes in patients with NMOSDs were nonspecific in appearance and were only infrequently neighbored by a blood vessel (49 lesions [35%], p = 0.003). Hypointense rims were very rarely detectable (3 lesions [2%], p < 0.001). Cortical pathology was absent in NMOSDs. In our MS cohort, we detected 36 leukocortical, 8 intracortical, and 8 subpial cortical lesions in 7 of 18 patients.

Conclusion:

The MRI features of white matter and the absence of cortical gray matter findings substantially differentiate NMOSDs from MS and can be used as a potential marker to distinguish these 2 entities. The fact that cortical pathology is common in MS but is not present in patients with NMOSDs may reflect the difference in the underlying pathogenesis.

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Supplementary Material

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 79Number 7August 14, 2012
Pages: 708-714
PubMed: 22855861

Publication History

Received: December 21, 2011
Accepted: March 28, 2012
Published online: August 1, 2012
Published in print: August 14, 2012

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Disclosure

T. Sinnecker reports no disclosures. J. Dörr received research grants from Novartis and Bayer Vital, travel support from Novartis, and speaker honoraria from Bayer Vital and Novartis. C.F. Pfueller received travel grants from Teva Pharmaceuticals Inc. L. Harms received speaker honoraria from Biogen Idec, Bayer Vital, Biomarin, Novartis, Merck-Serono, and Talecris; serves on the advisory board for Biomarin and Novartis; and received research support from Biogen and Bayer Healthcare. K. Ruprecht has received funding for travel and speaker honoraria from Merck Serono, Biogen Idec, Bayer Schering Pharma, and Novartis and receives research support from Novartis. S. Jarius was supported by a fellowship from the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) and by research grants from Bayer Healthcare and Merck Serono. W. Brück received grants from Teva Pharma, Biogen Idec, Novartis, and Bayer Schering; received honoraria for talks from Bayer Schering, Biogen Idec, Merck Serono, Teva/sanofi-aventis, and Novartis; and is member of the company advisory boards of Teva/sanofi-aventis, Novartis and Biogen Idec. T. Niendorf reports no disclosures. J. Wuerfel serves on the advisory board of Novartis. F. Paul received speaker honoraria, travel grants and research grants from Teva/sanofi-aventis, Bayer Schering, Merck Serono, Biogen Idec, Novartis, and travel reimbursement from the Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation. Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Tim Sinnecker
From the NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (T.S., J.D., C.F.P., J.W., F.P.), Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center (J.D., C.F.P., L.H., K.R., F.P.), and Department of Neurology (L.H., K.R.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin; Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg; Department of Neuropathology (W.B.), University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen; Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (T.N., J.W.), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin; Institute of Neuroradiology (J.W.), University of Luebeck, Luebeck; and Experimental and Clinical Research Center (T.N., F.P.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Jan Dörr, MD
From the NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (T.S., J.D., C.F.P., J.W., F.P.), Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center (J.D., C.F.P., L.H., K.R., F.P.), and Department of Neurology (L.H., K.R.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin; Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg; Department of Neuropathology (W.B.), University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen; Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (T.N., J.W.), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin; Institute of Neuroradiology (J.W.), University of Luebeck, Luebeck; and Experimental and Clinical Research Center (T.N., F.P.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Travel Funding by Novartis Pharma (2011, 2010). Speaker Honraria by Novartis Pharma (2011, 2010) and Bayer Vital (2011, 2012)
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Caspar F. Pfueller, MD
From the NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (T.S., J.D., C.F.P., J.W., F.P.), Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center (J.D., C.F.P., L.H., K.R., F.P.), and Department of Neurology (L.H., K.R.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin; Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg; Department of Neuropathology (W.B.), University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen; Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (T.N., J.W.), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin; Institute of Neuroradiology (J.W.), University of Luebeck, Luebeck; and Experimental and Clinical Research Center (T.N., F.P.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
travel support from Teva Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
This work was supported by the DFG (Exc 257).
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
(Teva Pharmaceuticals, travel support in 2010 and 2011)
Lutz Harms, MD
From the NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (T.S., J.D., C.F.P., J.W., F.P.), Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center (J.D., C.F.P., L.H., K.R., F.P.), and Department of Neurology (L.H., K.R.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin; Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg; Department of Neuropathology (W.B.), University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen; Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (T.N., J.W.), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin; Institute of Neuroradiology (J.W.), University of Luebeck, Luebeck; and Experimental and Clinical Research Center (T.N., F.P.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
I received personal compensation from Novartis as a member of advisory board.
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
I received personal compensation from Novartis, Biogen- Idec, Merck-Serono, Bayer and Biomarin for speaking. I received travel support from Bayer Vital, Biomarin and Biogen-Idec
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
I received personal compensation from Biomarin for consulting services.
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
I received financial support for research activities from Biogen-Idec and Bayer Vital.
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Klemens Ruprecht, MD
From the NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (T.S., J.D., C.F.P., J.W., F.P.), Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center (J.D., C.F.P., L.H., K.R., F.P.), and Department of Neurology (L.H., K.R.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin; Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg; Department of Neuropathology (W.B.), University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen; Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (T.N., J.W.), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin; Institute of Neuroradiology (J.W.), University of Luebeck, Luebeck; and Experimental and Clinical Research Center (T.N., F.P.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Speaker honoraria and travel grants from Biogen Idec, Merck Serono, Novartis, and Bayer Schering
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Scientific grant support form Novartis
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Sven Jarius, MD
From the NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (T.S., J.D., C.F.P., J.W., F.P.), Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center (J.D., C.F.P., L.H., K.R., F.P.), and Department of Neurology (L.H., K.R.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin; Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg; Department of Neuropathology (W.B.), University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen; Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (T.N., J.W.), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin; Institute of Neuroradiology (J.W.), University of Luebeck, Luebeck; and Experimental and Clinical Research Center (T.N., F.P.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Bayer Healthcare; Merck Serono
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
European Society of Neurology (ENS); European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS)
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Wolfgang Brück, MD
From the NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (T.S., J.D., C.F.P., J.W., F.P.), Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center (J.D., C.F.P., L.H., K.R., F.P.), and Department of Neurology (L.H., K.R.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin; Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg; Department of Neuropathology (W.B.), University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen; Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (T.N., J.W.), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin; Institute of Neuroradiology (J.W.), University of Luebeck, Luebeck; and Experimental and Clinical Research Center (T.N., F.P.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
I serve on the advisory board of Sanofi Germany, Biogen Idec Germany and Teva Pharma Israel.
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
I received honoraria for oral presentations from Teva, Sanofi, Novartis, Merck-Serono, Biogen Idec and Bayer Schering in the last 2 years.
Editorial Boards:
1.
I am editorial board member of Acta neuropathologica,Therapeutic Advances in Neurological disorders, Multiple Sclerosis International and Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology Speakers’ Bureaus: I received honoraria for oral presentations from Teva, Sanofi, Novartis, Merck-Serono, Biogen Idec and Bayer Schering in the last 2 years.
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
I received research support from Novartis, Teva and BiogenIdec.
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Thoralf Niendorf, PhD
From the NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (T.S., J.D., C.F.P., J.W., F.P.), Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center (J.D., C.F.P., L.H., K.R., F.P.), and Department of Neurology (L.H., K.R.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin; Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg; Department of Neuropathology (W.B.), University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen; Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (T.N., J.W.), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin; Institute of Neuroradiology (J.W.), University of Luebeck, Luebeck; and Experimental and Clinical Research Center (T.N., F.P.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen Germany
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Jens Wuerfel, MD*
From the NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (T.S., J.D., C.F.P., J.W., F.P.), Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center (J.D., C.F.P., L.H., K.R., F.P.), and Department of Neurology (L.H., K.R.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin; Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg; Department of Neuropathology (W.B.), University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen; Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (T.N., J.W.), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin; Institute of Neuroradiology (J.W.), University of Luebeck, Luebeck; and Experimental and Clinical Research Center (T.N., F.P.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
2011: Novartis advisory board
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
2011: Novartis travel support (AAN)
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Friedemann Paul, MD*
From the NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (T.S., J.D., C.F.P., J.W., F.P.), Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center (J.D., C.F.P., L.H., K.R., F.P.), and Department of Neurology (L.H., K.R.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin; Division of Molecular Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology (S.J.), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg; Department of Neuropathology (W.B.), University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen; Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (T.N., J.W.), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin; Institute of Neuroradiology (J.W.), University of Luebeck, Luebeck; and Experimental and Clinical Research Center (T.N., F.P.), Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
OCTIMS study steering committee, Novartis
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Travel and speaker honoraria from BiogenIdec, SanofiAventis, Teva, BayerSchering, MerckSerono, Novartis
Editorial Boards:
1.
The EPMA Journal, 2011, editorial board, PLoS ONE, academic editor
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers’ Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Research support from SanofiAventis, Teva, BayerSchering, MerckSerono, Novartis
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
German Research Foundation DFG Exc 257
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Arthur Arnstein Foundation Berlin
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

*
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Study funding: Supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG Exc 257 to F.P., C.P., and J.D.).
Correspondence & reprint requests to Dr. Paul: [email protected]

Author Contributions

All authors designed and coordinated the study. T.S. drafted the manuscript. All authors revised the manuscript. T.S. and J.W. analyzed the data. T.S. performed the statistical analysis. J.D., C.F.P., K.R., L.H., S.J., and F.P. assessed the patients. T.S., J.D., C.F.P., J.W., and F.P. performed MRI. All authors provided important intellectual content in preparation of the trial and the manuscript.

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