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Abstract

Objective:

To review current literature on neurology telemedicine and to discuss its application to patient care, neurology practice, military medicine, and current federal policy.

Methods:

Review of practice models and published literature on primary studies of the efficacy of neurology telemedicine.

Results:

Teleneurology is of greatest benefit to populations with restricted access to general and subspecialty neurologic care in rural areas, those with limited mobility, and those deployed by the military. Through the use of real-time audio-visual interaction, imaging, and store-and-forward systems, a greater proportion of neurologists are able to meet the demand for specialty care in underserved communities, decrease the response time for acute stroke assessment, and expand the collaboration between primary care physicians, neurologists, and other disciplines. The American Stroke Association has developed a defined policy on teleneurology, and the American Academy of Neurology and federal health care policy are beginning to follow suit.

Conclusions:

Teleneurology is an effective tool for the rapid evaluation of patients in remote locations requiring neurologic care. These underserved locations include geographically isolated rural areas as well as urban cores with insufficient available neurology specialists. With this technology, neurologists will be better able to meet the burgeoning demand for access to neurologic care in an era of declining availability. An increase in physician awareness and support at the federal and state level is necessary to facilitate expansion of telemedicine into further areas of neurology.

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 80Number 7February 12, 2013
Pages: 670-676
PubMed: 23400317

Publication History

Received: June 20, 2012
Accepted: October 11, 2012
Published online: February 11, 2013
Published in print: February 12, 2013

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Disclosure

L. Wechsler has served as a consultant for Abbott Vascular, Lunbeck, and Ferrer; is on the Data and Safety Monitoring Board for DIAS 3/4/J and the steering committee for CLOSURE, ACT I; and owns stock in Neurointerventional Therapeutics. J. Tsao has received funding from the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, United States Army, to develop a military neurology telemedicine system. S. Levine has given expert review and testimony on medical legal cases and has received research funding from the NIH. R. Swain-Eng is a full-time employee of the American Academy of Neurology. R.J. Adams is cofounder of REACHCall Inc., a for-profit telemedicine platform provider. He is also a co-owner of the company with <5% of outstanding stock. He is employed by Medical University of South Carolina, which offers telestroke consultation for fair market value to hospitals in South Carolina. He also is a speaker for Genentech, which makes tPA, but owns no stock. B. Demaerschalk has received telemedicine research grant funding from the Arizona Department of Health Services. Dr. Hess is a cofounder of REACHCall Inc., a for-profit telemedicine platform provider. He is also a co-owner of the company with <5% of outstanding stock. He is employed by Georgia Health Sciences University, which offers telestroke consultation for fair market value to hospitals in Georgia. He also has research contracts with Athersys, Inc., and Lundbeck. E. Moro has received honoraria from Medtronic for consulting services and speaking. She has received research grant support from St. Jude Medical and educational grants from Medtronic and St. Jude Medical. L. Schwamm serves as a consultant to LifeImage, a teleradiology company, and on the International Steering Committee for the DIAS3/4 trial. His employer, The Massachusetts General Hospital, offers an array of telehealth services at fair market value to many area hospitals, including telestroke. He has also given expert review and testimony on medical legal cases and has received research funding from the NIH on thrombolysis and HRSA on telemedicine. S. Steffensen reports no disclosures. B. Stern has received research support from Remedy Pharmaceuticals per patient research costs and research grants from the NIH. He has also received compensation for expert witness testimony. S. Zuckerman and P. Bhattacharya report no disclosures. L. Davis is a part of the VA Teleneurology group for which the VA pays part of the research costs for the nursing staff. I. Yurkiewicz and A. Alphonso report no disclosures. The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Navy, the Department of Defense, or the Department of Veterans Affairs. Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Lawrence R. Wechsler, MD, FAAN*
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Lundbeck/DSMB/2008-present, Neurointerventions/ SAB/ 2008-present, Silk Road Medical/ SAB/ 2012
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
UPMC Telemedicine network provides telestroke services to hospitals in Pennsylvania and Maryland.
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
5R01NS046309 [PI] 2008-2010, U01NS062851 [PI] 2009-2010, 2R01NS039325 [PI] 2009-2010, U01NS051483 [Site PI] 2007-2010, U01NS40406 [Site PI] 2006-2010, 5R01NS038384 [Site PI] 2004-2011, 1U10NS077272-01 [Co-PI] 2011-2012
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
Neurointerventions
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
Neurointerventions 2009-present, Silk Road Medical 2012
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Jack W. Tsao, MD, DPhil, FAAN*
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Continuum, Traumatic Brain Injury issue, Guest Editor, 2010
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
United States Army Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center, Development of a Military Teleneurology System, Principal Investigator, 09/30/06-9/30/11
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
Illumina, 2010-12; Biogen, 2010-12
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Steven R. Levine, MD
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
(1) Independent Medical/Safety Monitor for NINDS-funded IMS 3, FAST MAG, INSTINCT, and CLEAR-ER, (2) Adjudication committee for NINDS-funded WARCEF
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) Genentech-sponsored investigator meeting - travel expenses reimbursement in 2010, 2011
Editorial Boards:
1.
(1) MEDLINK, Associate Editor, 1996-present, (2) National Stroke Association, scientific content advisor, 2010, 2011
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
(1) Book: Transient Ischemic Attacks, Blackwell Futura, 2004
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
(1) Genentech-sponsored investigator meeting - consultant, 2010, (2) Genentech study on cost-effectiveness of primary stroke centers, 2011 - consultant within a study group
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
(1)Medical Education Speakers Network, lecturer, 2008-2012, (2)NCME, lecturer, 2008-2011
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1)NIH-NHLBI 1R01 HL096944, principal investigator, 2009-2013, (2) NIH-NINDS 1UO1 NS044364, Independent safety monitor, 2003 - 2012, (3) NIH-NINDS 1 U10 NS077378,PI, 2011 - 2017, (4) NIH-NINDS 1 U10 NS080377, PI, 2012 - 2017, (5) NIH-NINDS 1 R25 NS079211, MPI, 2012- 2017, (6) The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) 1IP2PI000781, scientific PI, 2012-2014, (7) NIH-NIA 1 R01 AG040039, Co-I, 2011-2016, (8) NIH-NINDS 2 P50 NS044283, safety monitor, 2008-2013, (9) NIH-NINDS 2 U01 NS052220, independent medical monitor, 2005-2013
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Rebecca J. Swain-Eng, MS
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
Employee of the American Academy of Neurology
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Robert J. Adams, MS, MD
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Travel expenses are paid when I give a lecture for Genentech
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
REACHCall inc telemedicine system
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
Genentech speaker Bureaau 2011-2012
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
Genentech
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Subcontract from Georgia State UNiversity regarding telemedicine adoption, the sponsor was Genentech
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Funding from NHLBI for Sickle Cell Research, Funding from the Department of Defense for stroke prevention work in South Carolina
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
I hold IP rights for telemedicine technology and receive royalites of less than $ 1500 per year for the last two years.
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
yes I own stock in REACH Health, inc a telemedicine platform provider
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Bart M. Demaerschalk, MD, MSc, FRCP(C)
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
(1) Stroke, editorial board since 2006, (2) Hospital Practice, editorial board since 2009, (3) The Neurologist, section editor, 2007, (4) Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, editorial board since 2009.
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
(1)Genentech, (2)National Stroke Association
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
(1) AGA, RESPECT trial site PI, 2009, (2) Vernalis, VASTT trial site PI, 2008, (3)NBT, ASP trial site PI, 2008, (4) MITSUBISHI, trial site PI, 2009, (5-6) Abbott, CHOICE and ACT I, co-investigator, 2009, (7) Penumbra, PICS, co-investigator, (8) Vernalis, DSMB member for IN-STEP, 2009, (9) Axio, event adjudicator, 2009, (10) Neuralieve, medical monitor,(11) Genentech and National Stroke Association, Advancing Telestroke Care, Steering Committee Member
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) ADHS, STRokE DOC AZ TIME, PI, 2009, (2) ADHS, STARR PI, 2009, (3) NINDS, IMS III, site PI, 2009 (4) NINDS, SAMMPRIS, site PI, 2009, NINDS, (5) SPS3, site PI, 2009, (6) NINDS, CREST, site PI, 2008, (7) NINDS, ALIAS II, co-investigator, 2009, (8) POINT, co-investigator, 2011, (9) MR RESCUE, co-investigator, 2010
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
David C. Hess, MD
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
1.) Pfizer-DSMB,.2.) Advisory Board-Sanofi,.3.) Advisory Board-Lundbeck,.4.) NIH-NINDS DSMB,.5.) STAIR (Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable),.6.) Translational Sciences, Inc
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Memorial Hospital, Gulport, Mississippi,.Georgia Health Sciences CME Program
Editorial Boards:
1.
Editorial board Stroke,.Editorial Board-Cell Transplantation,.Editorial Board-Experimental and Translational Stroke
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Mesoblast, Inc,.Translational Sciences, Inc
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
Our department of Neurology receives compensation for,.providing telestroke coverage to a number of Georgia hospitals
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
1.) Athersys, Inc-research contract of stem cells in stroke,.2.) Lundbeck, Inc
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
1.) NINDS/NIH RO1 . Early phase trial of minocycline in acute stroke
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
Board of Directors of Health, Inc. I have travel expenses.compensated but no salary and no stock options for this duty.
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
Licensing revenue from REACH Health, Inc a telestroke,.company for development of web-based telestroke system
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
Founder's equity in REACH Health Inc, a telestroke company. I am one of 9 co-founders
Legal Proceedings:
1.
Legal consulting on three cases in past 2 years for total sum of about 8000.00
Elena Moro, MD, PhD
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Medtronic, speaker honoraria
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Medtronic Canada, educational consultant
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
St. Jude
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
CIHR-AF-BMBF grant, Co-PI, 2 years
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
1) Sickkids Foundation (and IHDCYH), Co-PI, 2 years,.2) CurePSP, PI, 2 years
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Lee H. Schwamm, MD
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Serve on the scientific advisory boards for (1) CoAxia; (2) Lundbeck DIAS 4 steering committee; (3) LifeImage (4) Medtronic
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Neurocritical Care, Editorial board (2007-),.Stroke, editorial Board (2010-),.Frontiers in TeleNeurology, Editorial board (2010-)
Patents:
1.
(1) Schwamm LH, Sorensen AG, inventors; The General Hospital Corporation assignee. Imaging system for obtaining quantitative perfusion indices. US Patent 6,542,769. 2003 Apr 1.
Publishing Royalties:
1.
(1) Acute Ischemic Stroke: Imaging and Intervention, 2nd Edition. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag GmbH; 2011
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
see advisory boards, (1) Consultant to Mass Dept of Public Health on stroke systems of care, (2) RTI Health
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Site-PI for DIAS-4, Lundbeck
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NIH/NINDS, co-investigator,P50 NS051343-01 NIH/NINDS, site PI, U01 NS052220 IMS-3, HRSA, PI, HHSH 250200927063P (2009-2010)
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
(1) LifeImage, 2011,2012
Legal Proceedings:
1.
(1) CRICO and Risk Management Foundation; provide expert pre-trial review of cases involving stroke or traumatic brain injury (2010-)
Steve Steffensen, MD
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Barney J. Stern, MD, FAAN
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
I have served on a NIH DSMB.
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
I have received honoraria for speaking at non-profit entities.
Editorial Boards:
1.
I have received compensation as Editor of The Neurologist over the past 19 years.
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
I have received royalties for contributing to publications in UpToDate and Medlink.
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
My academic medical center is developing a tele-stroke program in which I will participate. During the course of developing this manuscript, I did not participate in tele-stroke services.
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
I received payment for per patient enrollment in a stroke study sponsored by Remedy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
2008 - 2012 Medical Safety Monitor. (10%), “Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS)” NIH NINDS R01 NS058728-01A1. Marc Chimowitz, MBChB, Principal Investigator. 2007 - 2012, Principal Investigator. “Neurological Emergencies Treatment Trials (NETT) Network Clinical Site Hubs” NIH NINDS 1 U10 NS058932-01. 2008 - present Co-Investigator Albumin in Acute Ischemic Stroke (ALIAS) NIH NINDS: ALIAS is a clinical trial ithin the NETT Network Myron Ginsberg, MD, Principal Investigator, 2009 - present, Co-Investigator Progesterone for Traumatic Brain Injury: Experimental Clinical Treatment (ProTECT) NIH NINDS: ProTECT is a clinical trial with the NETT Network, David Wright, MD, Principal Investigator 2010 - present, Co-Investigator Platelet-Oriented Inhibition in New TIA and minor ischemic stroke (POINT) Trial, a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial, NIH NINDS: POINT is a clinical trial with the NETT Network, S. Claiborne Johnston, MD, PhD, Principal Investigator, 2008 - 2011, Co-Investigator Rapid Anticonvulsant Medications Prior to Arrival Trial (RAMPART), NIH NINDS: RAMPART is a clinical trial with the NETT Network, Robert Silbergleit, MD, Principal Investigator, 2008 - 2011, Medical Safety Monitor. Chronic Migraine Treatment Trial (CMTT), NIH NINDS Clinical Research Collaboration 08-CRC-01, David Dodick, MD and Stephen Silberstein, MD, Principal Investigators, 2003 - 2012, Medical Safety Monitor “Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3)” NIH NINDS 2 U01 NS038529-04A1. Oscar Benavente, MD, Principal Investigator.
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Steven J. Zuckerman, MD, FAAN
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Pratik Bhattacharya, MD, MPH
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
Wayne State University, Assistant Professor- Department of Neurology: Comprehensive Stroke Program. Michigan Stroke Network: Vascular Neurologist.
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
The Wayne State Comprehensive Stroke Program uses Telemedicine to provide acute stroke services to patients in several hospitals across the state of Michigan. About 10% of total effort.
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Larry E. Davis, MD
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
Royalities for writing Fundamentals of Neurologic Disease by Demos in 2005
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
VA office of Rural Health VA staff funding to explore giving care to remote patients with Parkinson's disease via teleneurology in the VA. One year staff funding.
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
One time consultant to legal firm regarding West Nile encephalitis- 2012
Ilana R. Yurkiewicz, BS
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Aimee L. Alphonso, BS
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
For the American Academy of Neurology Telemedicine Work Group
From the Department of Neurology (L.R.W.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; United States Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (J.W.T.), Falls Church, VA; Department of Neurology and Downstate Stroke Center (S.R.L.), The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn; American Academy of Neurology (R.L.S.-E.), Minneapolis, MN; Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Stroke Center (R.J.A.), Charleston; Department of Neurology (B.M.D.), Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Georgia Health Sciences University (D.C.H.), Augusta; Movement Disorders Center (E.M.), Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (S.S.), John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neurology (B.J.S.), University of Maryland, Baltimore; Neurological Institute of Baton Rouge (S.J.Z.), Baton Rouge, LA; Department of Neurology (P.B.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; New Mexico VA Health Care System (L.E.D.), Albuquerque; Harvard Medical School (I.R.Y.), Boston, MA; and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (A.L.A.), Bethesda, MD.

Notes

Correspondence to American Academy of Neurology: [email protected]
*
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

Author Contributions

Lawrence R. Wechsler: drafting/revising the manuscript, study concept or design. Jack W. Tsao: drafting/revising the manuscript, study concept or design, analysis or interpretation of data, study supervision. Steven R. Levine: drafting/revising the manuscript, study concept or design, analysis or interpretation of data. Rebecca J. Swain-Eng: drafting/revising the manuscript. Robert J. Adams: drafting/revising the manuscript. Bart M. Demaerschalk: drafting/revising the manuscript. David C. Hess: drafting/revising the manuscript. Elena Moro: drafting/revising the manuscript. Lee H. Schwamm: drafting/revising the manuscript. Steve Steffensen: drafting/revising the manuscript. Barney J. Stern: drafting/revising the manuscript, study concept or design. Steven J. Zuckerman. drafting/revising the manuscript. Pratik Bhattcharya: drafting/revising the manuscript. Larry E. Davis: drafting/revising the manuscript, analysis or interpretation of data, contribution of vital reagents/tools/patients, acquisition of data. Ilana R. Yurkiewicz: drafting/revising the manuscript, analysis or interpretation of data. Aimee L. Alphonso: drafting/revising the manuscript.

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