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Global Perspectives
September 2, 2013

The global epidemiology of herpes zoster

September 3, 2013 issue
81 (10) 928-930

Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous, highly neurotropic, exclusively human α-herpesvirus. Primary infection usually results in varicella (chickenpox), after which VZV becomes latent in neurons of cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. As humans undergo a natural decline in cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to VZV with age, VZV frequently reactivates to produce zoster, characterized by maculopapular or vesicular rash and dermatomal-distribution pain. Pain and rash usually occur within days of each other. Pain is severe and often burning. Colorful descriptions of zoster exist worldwide. In Arabic, Hezam innar means belt of fire; in Hindi, Baoisayaa daga means big rash; in Norwegian, Helvetesild means Hell's fire (also described as a bell of roses from Hell); and in Spanish, Culebrilla means small snake.1 The most common complication of zoster is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), operationally defined as pain lasting for more than 90 days after rash. Zoster may be followed by multiple neurologic disorders (meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and vasculopathy, including VZV temporal arteritis) as well as ocular disease (acute or progressive outer retinal necrosis).

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Supplementary Material

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REFERENCES

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Paek E, Johnson R. Public awareness and knowledge of herpes zoster: results of a global survey. Gerontology 2010;56:20–31.
2.
Yawn BP, Saddier P, Wollan PC, St Sauver JL, Kurland MJ, Sy LS. A population-based study of the incidence and complication rates of herpes zoster before zoster vaccine introduction. Mayo Clin Proc 2007;82:1341–1349.
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Naveen KN, Tophakane RS, Hanumanthayya K, Pv B, Pai VV. A study of HIV seropositivity with various clinical manifestation of herpes zoster among patients from Karnataka, India. Dermatol Online J 2011;17:3.
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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 81Number 10September 3, 2013
Pages: 928-930
PubMed: 23999562

Publication History

Published online: September 2, 2013
Published in print: September 3, 2013

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Disclosure

D. Gilden receives research support from NIH research grants AG006127, AG03258, and NS007321. Dr. Gilden serves as Senior Associate Editor for the Journal of Neurovirology and on the editorial boards of In Vivo, Journal of Virology, Scientific American Medicine, Virus Genes, and Neurology®. Dr. Gilden has consulted for TEVA and Epiphany Laboratories and has received payment for educational lectures from Merck Laboratories. B. Yawn reports no disclosures. Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures.

Study Funding

Supported in part by NIH grants AG006127 and AG032958 to D.G. and a grant from CDC to B.P.Y.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Barbara P. Yawn, MD
From the Department of Research (B.P.Y.), Olmsted Medical Center, Rochester, MN; and Departments of Neurology and Microbiology (D.G.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Respiratory Medicine, Associate Editor, 2008-2015 Respiratory Medicine CME, Editor in Chief, 2012-2014 Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Section Editor, Epidemiology, 2009-2015 Minnesota Medicine, Editoral Board, 2000-2015
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Merck, consultant related to herpes zoster epidemiology
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
Merck study on epidemiology of HZ and second study on HZ eye complications epidemiology and natural history.
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
CDC, study on HZ surveillance and HZ risk factors
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Don Gilden, MD
From the Department of Research (B.P.Y.), Olmsted Medical Center, Rochester, MN; and Departments of Neurology and Microbiology (D.G.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) Merck Laboratories, speaker honorarium
Editorial Boards:
1.
(1) Journal of NeuroVirology, Senior Associate Editor, 1995-present (2) In Vivo,editorial board, 2002-present (3) Journal of Virology, editorial board, 2003-present (4) Scientific American Medicine, editorial board, 2004- present (5) Virus Genes, editorial board, 2006-present (6) Neurology, editorial board, 2009-present
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) NIH P01 AG032958, Program Director, 03/01/09-02/28/14 (2) NIH R01 AG006127, Principal Investigator, 09/01/10- 08/31/15 (4) NIH T32 NS007321, Program Director, 07/01/10-06/30/15
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence to Dr. Gilden: [email protected]
Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

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Cited By
  1. Temporary Spinal Cord Stimulation for Herpes Zoster With Myelitis: A Case Series, Cureus, (2024).https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.55979
    Crossref
  2. Associations between Different Antivirals and Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury in Adults with Herpes Zoster, Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, (2024).https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.0000000000000452
    Crossref
  3. Kliniğimizde Covid-19 pandemisi döneminde takip edilen herpes zoster olgularının klinik ve demografik özelliklerinin retrospektif değerlendirilmesi, Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory, 15, 1, (45-55), (2024).https://doi.org/10.18663/tjcl.1388554
    Crossref
  4. Efficacy and safety of therapies related to acupuncture for acute herpes zoster: A PRISMA systematic review and network meta-analysis, Medicine, 103, 20, (e38006), (2024).https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000038006
    Crossref
  5. Unraveling the Immune Signature of Herpes Zoster: Insights Into the Pathophysiology and Human Leukocyte Antigen Risk Profile, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, (2024).https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiad609
    Crossref
  6. Herpes zoster mRNA vaccine induces superior vaccine immunity over licensed vaccine in mice and rhesus macaques, Emerging Microbes & Infections, 13, 1, (2024).https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2024.2309985
    Crossref
  7. Herpes zoster in Belgium: a new solution to an old problem, Acta Clinica Belgica, (1-12), (2024).https://doi.org/10.1080/17843286.2024.2350258
    Crossref
  8. Herpes Zoster bei entzündlich-rheumatischen Erkrankungen, Aktuelle Rheumatologie, 49, 02, (85-91), (2024).https://doi.org/10.1055/a-2195-1417
    Crossref
  9. Skin neuropathy and immunomodulation in diseases, Fundamental Research, 4, 2, (218-225), (2024).https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fmre.2022.08.016
    Crossref
  10. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus, Clinics in Dermatology, (2024).https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2024.01.007
    Crossref
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