Skip to main content
AAN.com
article
June 1, 1995

Incidence and risk factors of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a defined elderly Japanese population
The Hisayama Study

June 1995 issue
45 (6) 1161-1168

Abstract

Article abstract—We followed 828 nondemented residents of Hisayama Town, Kyushu, Japan, aged 65 years or older (88.3% of the elderly population) for 7 years starting in 1985 in order to determine the type-specific incidence of dementia and its risk factors in the general Japanese population. Only two subjects were lost to the follow-up, during which period 103 subjects developed dementia. Morphologic examination of the brains of 89 subjects (86.4%) was made by autopsy or CT. We made the initial diagnosis of dementia based on the DSM-111-R criteria, with the diagnoses of vascular dementia (VD) being based on the NINDS-AIREN criteria and Alzheimer's disease (AD) on the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. The incidence of VD and AD increased with age for both sexes. The age-adjusted total incidence (per 1,000 person-years) of dementia was 19.3 for men and 20.9 for women. The corresponding rates for VD were 12.2 for men and 9.0 for women, and for AD, 5.1 for men and 10.9 for women. Among the VD subjects whose brain morphology we examined, the most frequent type of stroke was multiple lacunar infarcts (42%), but half these subjects lacked a stroke episode in their histories. Multivariate analysis showed that age, prior stroke episodes, systolic blood pressure, and alcohol consumption were significant independent risk factors for the occurrence of VD. In contrast, age and a low score on Hasegawa's dementia scale were significant risk factors for AD, and physical activity was a significant preventive factor for AD. Our findings suggest that asymptomatic stroke is an important factor in the development of VD, with age, prior stroke episodes, systolic blood pressure, and alcohol consumption being independent risk factors for its occurrence. Age and a low scare on Hasegawa's dementia scale are significant risk factors for AD, with moderate physical activity having a statistically significant preventive effect.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 45Number 6June 1995
Pages: 1161-1168
PubMed: 7783883

Publication History

Published online: June 1, 1995
Published in print: June 1995

Permissions

Request permissions for this article.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

T. Yoshitake, MD
From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Yoshitake, Kiyohara, Kato, Ohmura, Iwamoto, Nakayama, Ohmori, Nomiyama, Kawano, Ueda, and Fujishima), the First Department of Pathology (Dr. Sueishi), and the Second Department of Pathology (Dr. Tsuneyoshi), Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Japan.
Y. Kiyohara, MD
From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Yoshitake, Kiyohara, Kato, Ohmura, Iwamoto, Nakayama, Ohmori, Nomiyama, Kawano, Ueda, and Fujishima), the First Department of Pathology (Dr. Sueishi), and the Second Department of Pathology (Dr. Tsuneyoshi), Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Japan.
I. Kato, MD
From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Yoshitake, Kiyohara, Kato, Ohmura, Iwamoto, Nakayama, Ohmori, Nomiyama, Kawano, Ueda, and Fujishima), the First Department of Pathology (Dr. Sueishi), and the Second Department of Pathology (Dr. Tsuneyoshi), Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Japan.
T. Ohmura, MD
From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Yoshitake, Kiyohara, Kato, Ohmura, Iwamoto, Nakayama, Ohmori, Nomiyama, Kawano, Ueda, and Fujishima), the First Department of Pathology (Dr. Sueishi), and the Second Department of Pathology (Dr. Tsuneyoshi), Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Japan.
H. Iwamoto, MD
From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Yoshitake, Kiyohara, Kato, Ohmura, Iwamoto, Nakayama, Ohmori, Nomiyama, Kawano, Ueda, and Fujishima), the First Department of Pathology (Dr. Sueishi), and the Second Department of Pathology (Dr. Tsuneyoshi), Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Japan.
K. Nakayama, MD
From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Yoshitake, Kiyohara, Kato, Ohmura, Iwamoto, Nakayama, Ohmori, Nomiyama, Kawano, Ueda, and Fujishima), the First Department of Pathology (Dr. Sueishi), and the Second Department of Pathology (Dr. Tsuneyoshi), Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Japan.
S. Ohmori, MD
From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Yoshitake, Kiyohara, Kato, Ohmura, Iwamoto, Nakayama, Ohmori, Nomiyama, Kawano, Ueda, and Fujishima), the First Department of Pathology (Dr. Sueishi), and the Second Department of Pathology (Dr. Tsuneyoshi), Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Japan.
K. Nomiyama, MD
From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Yoshitake, Kiyohara, Kato, Ohmura, Iwamoto, Nakayama, Ohmori, Nomiyama, Kawano, Ueda, and Fujishima), the First Department of Pathology (Dr. Sueishi), and the Second Department of Pathology (Dr. Tsuneyoshi), Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Japan.
H. Kawano, MD
From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Yoshitake, Kiyohara, Kato, Ohmura, Iwamoto, Nakayama, Ohmori, Nomiyama, Kawano, Ueda, and Fujishima), the First Department of Pathology (Dr. Sueishi), and the Second Department of Pathology (Dr. Tsuneyoshi), Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Japan.
K. Ueda, MD
From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Yoshitake, Kiyohara, Kato, Ohmura, Iwamoto, Nakayama, Ohmori, Nomiyama, Kawano, Ueda, and Fujishima), the First Department of Pathology (Dr. Sueishi), and the Second Department of Pathology (Dr. Tsuneyoshi), Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Japan.
K. Sueishi, MD
From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Yoshitake, Kiyohara, Kato, Ohmura, Iwamoto, Nakayama, Ohmori, Nomiyama, Kawano, Ueda, and Fujishima), the First Department of Pathology (Dr. Sueishi), and the Second Department of Pathology (Dr. Tsuneyoshi), Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Japan.
M. Tsuneyoshi, MD
From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Yoshitake, Kiyohara, Kato, Ohmura, Iwamoto, Nakayama, Ohmori, Nomiyama, Kawano, Ueda, and Fujishima), the First Department of Pathology (Dr. Sueishi), and the Second Department of Pathology (Dr. Tsuneyoshi), Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Japan.
M. Fujishima, MD
From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Yoshitake, Kiyohara, Kato, Ohmura, Iwamoto, Nakayama, Ohmori, Nomiyama, Kawano, Ueda, and Fujishima), the First Department of Pathology (Dr. Sueishi), and the Second Department of Pathology (Dr. Tsuneyoshi), Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Japan.

Metrics & Citations

Metrics

Citations

Download Citations

If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Select your manager software from the list below and click Download.

Cited By
  1. The impact of active community-based survey on dementia detection ratio in Taiwan: A cohort study with historical control, Frontiers in Public Health, 10, (2023).https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.1005252
    Crossref
  2. Sex differences in mild vascular cognitive impairment: A multimodal transcranial magnetic stimulation study, PLOS ONE, 18, 3, (e0282751), (2023).https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0282751
    Crossref
  3. Obesity in Late-Life as a Protective Factor Against Dementia and Dementia-Related Mortality, American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias®, 38, (2023).https://doi.org/10.1177/15333175221111658
    Crossref
  4. Time‐dependent impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus on incident prodromal Alzheimer disease: A longitudinal study in 1395 participants, European Journal of Neurology, 30, 9, (2620-2628), (2023).https://doi.org/10.1111/ene.15868
    Crossref
  5. The Health–Related Effects of Alcohol Use in Older Persons: A Systematic Review, Substance Abuse, 23, 3, (149-164), (2023).https://doi.org/10.1080/08897070209511485
    Crossref
  6. The effect of lipid metabolism on age-associated cognitive decline: Lessons learned from model organisms and human, IBRO Neuroscience Reports, 15, (165-169), (2023).https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibneur.2023.08.2194
    Crossref
  7. Effect of physical activity on risk of Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of twenty-nine prospective cohort studies, Ageing Research Reviews, 92, (102127), (2023).https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2023.102127
    Crossref
  8. Alzheimer’s Disease Management in Developing Countries, Handbook of Medical and Health Sciences in Developing Countries, (1-15), (2023).https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-74786-2_44-1
    Crossref
  9. Biological and Clinical Implications of Sex-Specific Differences in Alzheimer’s Disease, Sex and Gender Effects in Pharmacology, (181-197), (2023).https://doi.org/10.1007/164_2023_672
    Crossref
  10. Sex differences in dementia risk and risk factors: Individual‐participant data analysis using 21 cohorts across six continents from the COSMIC consortium, Alzheimer's & Dementia, 19, 8, (3365-3378), (2023).https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12962
    Crossref
  11. See more
Loading...

View Options

Get Access

Login options

Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution to get full access on this article.

Personal login Institutional Login
Purchase Options

Purchase this article to get full access to it.

Purchase Access, $39 for 24hr of access

View options

Full Text

View Full Text

Media

Figures

Other

Tables

Share

Share

Share article link

Share