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Summary

Studies suggest that a lack of standardized knowledge may lead to underreporting and undertreatment of sports-related concussion. However, there has been little work done to establish how this knowledge may affect athletes’ behaviors toward reporting their concussions and removing themselves from play. We conducted an anonymous online survey to assess athletes’ knowledge of signs and symptoms of concussion, and also sought to estimate the potential frequency of underreporting in a collegiate athlete cohort. Among 262 athletes who responded to the survey, 43% of those with a history of concussion reported that they had knowingly hidden symptoms of a concussion to stay in a game, and 22% of athletes overall indicated that they would be unlikely or very unlikely to report concussion symptoms to a coach or athletic trainer in the future. These data suggest that there may be a substantial degree of underreporting of concussion among collegiate athletes, despite most acknowledging that they have been formally educated about the risks of concussion.

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology® Clinical Practice
Volume 3Number 4August 2013
Pages: 279-287

Publication History

Published online: July 19, 2013
Published in print: August 2013

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Disclosures

D. Torres, K. Galetta, H.W. Phillips, M. Dziemianowicz, J. Wilson, E. Dorman, and E. Laudano report no disclosures. S. Galetta serves on the editorial boards of Neurology® and the Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology, and has received consulting honoraria from Biogen Idec, Questcor, and Teva. L. Balcer has received honoraria for consulting from Biogen Idec, Novartis, Vaccinex, Questcor, and Acorda; has served on scientific advisory boards for Biogen Idec; has received speaker honoraria from Biogen Idec, Bayer, and Novartis, and has received research support from NIH/NEI and the National MS Society. Full disclosure form information provided by the authors is available with the full text of this article at Neurology.org/cp.

Study Funding

Supported by NIH K24 EY 018136.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Daniel M. Torres, MD
Department of Neurology (DMT, SLG, LJB), New York University School of Medicine, New York; and Departments of Neurology (KMG, HWP, EMSD, JAW, SLG, LJB), Recreation and Intercollegiate Athletics, Athletic Training (EM, EAD), Ophthalmology (SLG, LJB), and Epidemiology (LJB), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Kristin M. Galetta, MS
Department of Neurology (DMT, SLG, LJB), New York University School of Medicine, New York; and Departments of Neurology (KMG, HWP, EMSD, JAW, SLG, LJB), Recreation and Intercollegiate Athletics, Athletic Training (EM, EAD), Ophthalmology (SLG, LJB), and Epidemiology (LJB), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
H. Westley Phillips, BS
Department of Neurology (DMT, SLG, LJB), New York University School of Medicine, New York; and Departments of Neurology (KMG, HWP, EMSD, JAW, SLG, LJB), Recreation and Intercollegiate Athletics, Athletic Training (EM, EAD), Ophthalmology (SLG, LJB), and Epidemiology (LJB), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
E. Mark S. Dziemianowicz, BS
Department of Neurology (DMT, SLG, LJB), New York University School of Medicine, New York; and Departments of Neurology (KMG, HWP, EMSD, JAW, SLG, LJB), Recreation and Intercollegiate Athletics, Athletic Training (EM, EAD), Ophthalmology (SLG, LJB), and Epidemiology (LJB), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
James A. Wilson, BA
Department of Neurology (DMT, SLG, LJB), New York University School of Medicine, New York; and Departments of Neurology (KMG, HWP, EMSD, JAW, SLG, LJB), Recreation and Intercollegiate Athletics, Athletic Training (EM, EAD), Ophthalmology (SLG, LJB), and Epidemiology (LJB), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Emily S. Dorman, MEd, ACT
Department of Neurology (DMT, SLG, LJB), New York University School of Medicine, New York; and Departments of Neurology (KMG, HWP, EMSD, JAW, SLG, LJB), Recreation and Intercollegiate Athletics, Athletic Training (EM, EAD), Ophthalmology (SLG, LJB), and Epidemiology (LJB), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Eric Laudano, ACT
Department of Neurology (DMT, SLG, LJB), New York University School of Medicine, New York; and Departments of Neurology (KMG, HWP, EMSD, JAW, SLG, LJB), Recreation and Intercollegiate Athletics, Athletic Training (EM, EAD), Ophthalmology (SLG, LJB), and Epidemiology (LJB), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Steven L. Galetta, MD
Department of Neurology (DMT, SLG, LJB), New York University School of Medicine, New York; and Departments of Neurology (KMG, HWP, EMSD, JAW, SLG, LJB), Recreation and Intercollegiate Athletics, Athletic Training (EM, EAD), Ophthalmology (SLG, LJB), and Epidemiology (LJB), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Neurology J. Neuro-ophthalmology
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Teva Biogen Idec Questcor
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Laura J. Balcer, MD, MSCE
Department of Neurology (DMT, SLG, LJB), New York University School of Medicine, New York; and Departments of Neurology (KMG, HWP, EMSD, JAW, SLG, LJB), Recreation and Intercollegiate Athletics, Athletic Training (EM, EAD), Ophthalmology (SLG, LJB), and Epidemiology (LJB), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
(1) Scientific Advisory Board, Biogen Idec; (2) Honorarium, Novartis; (3) Honorarium, Vaccinex (4) Honorarium, Questcor (5) Honorarium, Acorda
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Biogen Idec.
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
(1) Biogen Idec, speaker honoraria; (2) Bayer, speaker honoraria; (3) Novartis, speaker honoraria
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NIH/NEI, PI, 1996-2010
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
National MS Society, PI, 2000-2010
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence to: [email protected].
Funding information and disclosures are provided at the end of the article. Full disclosure form information provided by the authors is available with the full text of this article at Neurology.org/cp.

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