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Abstract

Objective:

To assess the prognostic value of MOG antibodies (abs) in the differential diagnosis of acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS).

Methods:

Clinical course, MRI, MOG-abs, AQP4-abs, and CSF cells and oligoclonal bands (OCB) in children with ADS and 24 months of follow-up were reviewed in this observational prospective multicenter hospital-based study.

Results:

Two hundred ten children with ADS were included and diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (n = 60), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) (n = 12), clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) (n = 101), and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 37) after the first episode. MOG-abs were predominantly found in ADEM (57%) and less frequently in NMOSD (25%), CIS (25%), or MS (8%). Increased MOG-ab titers were associated with younger age (p = 0.0001), diagnosis of ADEM (p = 0.005), increased CSF cell counts (p = 0.011), and negative OCB (p = 0.012). At 24-month follow-up, 96 children had no further relapses. Thirty-five children developed recurrent non-MS episodes (63% MOG-, 17% AQP4-abs at onset). Seventy-nine children developed MS (4% MOG-abs at onset). Recurrent non-MS episodes were associated with high MOG-ab titers (p = 0.0003) and older age at onset (p = 0.024). MS was predicted by MS-like MRI (p < 0.0001) and OCB (p = 0.007). An MOG-ab cutoff titer ≥1:1,280 predicted a non-MS course with a sensitivity of 47% and a specificity of 100% and a recurrent non-MS course with a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 86%.

Conclusions:

Our results show that the presence of MOG-abs strongly depends on the age at disease onset and that high MOG-ab titers were associated with a recurrent non-MS disease course.

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Supplementary Material

File (coinvestigators_biomarker_study_group.docx)
File (figure_e-1.pdf)
File (list_of_contributors.docx)
File (table_e-1.pdf)
File (table_e-2.pdf)
File (table_e-3.pdf)
File (table_e-4.pdf)
File (table_e-5.pdf)

AUTHOR AFFILIATIONS

From the Department of Pediatrics (E.-M.H., K.M.), Olga Hospital, Stuttgart, Germany; Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics I (M.B., C.L.), Clinical Department of Neurology (K.S., G.K., T.B., M.R.), and Department of Neuroradiology (T.G.), Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria; Department of Pediatric Neurology (B.A.), Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey; Institute of Neurology (B.B.-K., R.H.), Medical University of Vienna, Austria; Department of Pediatric Neurology and Developmental Medicine (A.B.), Dr. von Hauner's Children's Hospital, University of Munich, Germany; Department of Pediatrics (S.B.-I.), Donauspital, Vienna, Austria; Department of Pediatrics (K.D.), Division of Pediatric Neurology, Klinikum Kassel, Germany; Department of Pediatrics (A.E.), Women's and Children's Hospital, Linz, Austria; Department of Pediatrics (U.G.-S.), LKH Medical University Graz, Austria; Department of Pediatrics (M.H.), Division of Neuropediatrics and Social Pediatrics, Medical University RWTH Aachen, Germany; Department of General Pediatrics, Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology (M.K.), University Children's Hospital, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany; Department of Neuropediatrics (A.K.), University Children's Hospital Basel and Bern, Switzerland; Department of Pediatrics (J.K.), Salzburger Landeskliniken (SALK) and Paracelsus Medical University (PMU), Austria; Children's Hospital Schwabing (V.K.), Technische Universität München, Germany; Department of Pediatrics (S.L.), Division of Pediatric Neurology, Klinikum Dritter Orden, Munich, Germany; Neuroimmunology (F.L.), Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Department, Medical University Schleswig-Hostein, Kiel, Germany; Center for Autoimmune and Musculoskeletal Diseases (S.M.), The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY; Department of Pediatric Neurology (I.P.), Elisabeth Children's Hospital, Medical University Oldenburg, Germany; Department of Neurology (D.P.), Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Canada; Department of Neuropediatrics (M.P.), Children's Hospital DRK Siegen, Germany; Department of Pediatrics (M.R.), Kliniken Ostallgäu-Kaufbeuren, Germany; Division of Pediatric Neurology (M.S.), Children's Hospital, Klinikum Augsburg, Germany; Department of Neuropediatrics (C.T.), University Children's Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Pediatrics (D.T.), Zentrum für Seltene Erkrankungen ZSE, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany; Department of Pediatrics (S.V.), Division of Pediatric Neurology, Klinikum Bayreuth, Germany; Department of Pediatrics (C.Z.), Division of Pediatric Neurology, Schoen Klinikum Vogtareuth, Germany; and Department of Pediatric Neurology (E.-M.H., K.R.), Vestische Kinder- und Jugendklinik Datteln, University Witten/Herdecke, Germany.

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 89Number 9August 29, 2017
Pages: 900-908
PubMed: 28768844

Publication History

Received: December 1, 2016
Accepted: June 6, 2017
Published online: August 2, 2017
Published in print: August 29, 2017

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Disclosure

E. Hennes, M. Baumann, K. Schanda, B. Anlar, B. Bajer-Kornek, A. Blaschek, S. Brantner-Inthaler, K. Diepold, A. Eisenkölbl, T. Gotwald, G. Kuchukhidze, U. Gruber-Sedlmayr, M. Häusler, R. Höftberger, M. Karenfort, A. Klein, J. Koch, V. Kraus, C. Lechner, and S. Leiz report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. F. Leypoldt reports speaker's honoraria from Grifols, Biogen, Bayer, Roche, and Teva, advisory board positions for Roche and Biogen. F. Leypoldt's institute performs commercial antibody testing without receiving any personal financial benefit. S. Mader, K. Marquard, I. Poggenburg, D. Pohl, M. Pritsch, M. Raucherzauner, M. Schimmel, C. Thiels, D. Tibussek, S. Vieker, and C. Zeches report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. T. Berger: The Neurological Research Laboratory (Medical University of Innsbruck and Tirol Kliniken, Markus Reindl, and Thomas Berger) receives payments for antibody assays (AQP4- and anti-neuronal antibodies) and for AQP4- and MOG-antibody validation experiments organized by Euroimmun (Germany). M. Reindl: The Neurological Research Laboratory (Medical University of Innsbruck and Tirol Kliniken, Markus Reindl, and Thomas Berger) receives payments for antibody assays (AQP4- and anti-neuronal antibodies) and for AQP4- and MOG-antibody validation experiments organized by Euroimmun (Germany). K. Rostásy reports no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures.

Study Funding

Supported by grant numbers 14158 and 15918 from the Jubilaeumsfonds of the Austrian National Bank (Kevin Rostasy) and research grant “BIG WIG MS” from the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy (Markus Reindl).

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Eva-Maria Hennes, MD
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Matthias Baumann, MD
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Kathrin Schanda, MSc
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Banu Anlar, MD
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Journal of Child Neurology, Editorial board member, 2010-
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1)Site: Hacettepe Hospital Pediatric Neurology, Study: Biogen 109MS202, PI, 30% 2)Site: Hacettepe Hospital Pediatric Neurology, Study: Novartis CFTY720D2311, 30% 3)Site: Hacettepe Hospital Pediatric Neurology,study: Novartis EFC11759, 30%
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Barbara Bajer-Kornek, MD
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Astrid Blaschek, MD
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Sigrid Brantner-Inthaler, MD
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Katharina Diepold, MD
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Astrid Eisenkölbl, MD
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Thaddäus Gotwald, MD
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Georgi Kuchukhidze, MD
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Ursula Gruber-Sedlmayr, MD
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1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Martin Häusler, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Romana Höftberger, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Michael Karenfort, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Andrea Klein, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
1 Advisory board Roche SMA (commercial) 2 Advisory board Biogen SMA (commercial)
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
funding for tavel by the Gesellschaft f?r Neurop?diatrie GNP (non profit organisation)as member of the board
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
fsrmm (fondation suisse de la recherche contre les maladies musculaires)
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Johannes Koch, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Verena Kraus, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
DZIF, maternity leave stipend
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Christian Lechner, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Steffen Leiz, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1)Desitin Arzneimittel GmbH, speaker honoraria
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Frank Leypoldt, MD, PhD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
(1) Roche, Biogen
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) Grifols (2) Teva (3) Biogen (4) Fresenius (5) Bayer
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig- Holstein Campus Kiel, Germany, commercial antibody testing service, 20%, 2014-2016
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Simone Mader, PhD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Review Editor, Editorial Board of Inflammation, a specialty of Frontiers in Immunology
Patents:
1.
Inhibition of autism spectrum disorder using decoy antigens to maternal brain-reactive antibodiesWO 2017062270 A1
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Klaus Marquard, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Imke Poggenburg, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Daniela Pohl, MD, PhD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) EAN: Funding for travel (2) LACTRIMS: Funding for travel
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Martin Pritsch, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Markus Raucherzauner, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Mareike Schimmel, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Advisory Board Merck Serono
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Merck Serono, funding for travel
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Charlotte Thiels, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Daniel Tibussek, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
1) commercial: funding for travel to Conference and participate in advisory board meeting (85. Jahreskongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft f?r Neurologie im Congress Center Hamburg CCH) 26.-29.Sept 2012 from Novartis Pharma. Speakers honoriert. Desitin. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Neurop?diatrie Rhein Ruhr 2015 and 2016.
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Silvia Vieker, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Eisai GmbH. Lyoner Stra?e 36 60528 Frankfurt
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Carolin Zeches, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Thomas Berger, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Markus Reindl, PhD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
PLOS ONE, academic editor, 2012,
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
The University Hospital and Medical University of Innsbruck (Austria, Markus Reindl) receive payments for antibody assays (NMDAR, AQP4 and other autoantibodies) and for MOG and AQP4 antibody validation experiments organized by Euroimmun (Luebeck, Germany).
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) This study was supported by a research grant from the Austrian Federal Ministery of Science and Economy (grant BIG WIG MS).
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
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NONE
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NONE
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Kevin Rostásy, MD
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Scientific adviser on Fingolimod project-Novartis
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Merck-Serono- Symposium speaker GNP annual meeting 2013, Innsbruck
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
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1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
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1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
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On behalf of the BIOMARKER Study Group

Notes

Correspondence to Dr. Rostásy: [email protected]
Coinvestigators are listed at Neurology.org.
Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

Author Contributions

Eva-Maria Hennes: acquisition of data, study supervision, and analysis and interpretation of data. Matthias Baumann: acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content. Kathrin Schanda: acquisition of data and analysis and interpretation of data. Banu Anlar, Barbara Bajer-Kornek, Astrid Blaschek, Sigrid Brantner-Inthaler, Katharina Diepold, Astrid Eisenkölbl, Thaddäus Gotwald, Georgi Kuchukhidze, Ursula Gruber-Sedlmayr, Martin Häusler, Romana Höftberger, Michael Karenfort, Andrea Klein, Johannes Koch, Verena Kraus, Christian Lechner, Steffen Leiz, Frank Leypoldt, Simone Mader, Klaus Marquard, Imke Poggenburg, Daniela Pohl, Martin Pritsch, Markus Raucherzauner, Mareike Schimmel, Charlotte Thiels, Daniel Tibussek, Silvia Vieker, and Carolin Zeches: acquisition of data and critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content. Thomas Berger: acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content. Markus Reindl: acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and study supervision. Kevin Rostásy: study concept and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and study supervision.

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