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Abstract

Fixation-off sensitivity (FOS) refers to seizures or EEG abnormalities elicited by the elimination of central vision/fixation, even in the presence of light.1 Typically, a paroxysmal discharge occurs within 1–3 seconds of eye closure, persists throughout the eye-closed state, and disappears immediately on eye opening.2

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References

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Panayiotopoulos CP. Fixation-off, scotosensitive, and other visual-related epilepsies. Adv Neurol 1998;75:139–157.
2.
Brigo F, Rossini F, Stefani A, et al. Fixation-off sensitivity. Clin Neurophysiol 2013;124:221–227.
3.
Koutroumanidis M, Tsatsou K, Sanders S, et al. Fixation-off sensitivity in epilepsies other than the idiopathic epilepsies of childhood with occipital paroxysms: a 12-year clinical-video EEG study. Epileptic Disord 2009;11:20–36.
4.
Licchetta L, Pippucci T, Bisulli F, et al. A novel pedigree with familial cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy (FCMTE): clinical characterization, refinement of the FCMTE2 locus, and confirmation of a founder haplotype. Epilepsia 2013;54:1298–1306.
5.
Ferlazzo E, Calarese T, Genton P. Pharmacoresistant occipital lobe epilepsy with fixation-off sensitivity in a patient with cerebral calcifications: a video/EEG study. Epilepsy Behav 2010;19:647–649.
6.
Tirol FG. New-onset fixation-off sensitivity or scotosensitivity in an adult male after bilateral embolic strokes of the parietal and occipital regions. Clin EEG Neurosci 2017;48:413–416.
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Krakow K, Baxendale SA, Maguire EA, et al. Fixation-off sensitivity as a model of continuous epileptiform discharges: electroencephalographic, neuropsychological and functional MRI findings. Epilepsy Res 2000;42:1–6.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 91Number 23December 4, 2018
Pages: 1061-1063
PubMed: 30413630

Publication History

Received: March 29, 2018
Accepted: August 27, 2018
Published online: November 9, 2018
Published in print: December 4, 2018

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Disclosure

L. Licchetta reports no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. F. Bisulli received honoraria from EISAI. L. Ferri, G. Cantalupo, L. Alvisi, L. Vignatelli, and G. Loddo report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. F. Provini received honoraria from Bial, Sanofi, Vanda Pharmaceutical, and Fidia for speaking engagements and consultancy. P. Tinuper received honoraria from UCB, EISAI, and Liva-Nova for speaking engagements and consultancy. Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures.

Study Funding

No targeted funding reported.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Laura Licchetta, MD, PhD
From IRCCS (L.L., F.B. L.V., F.P., P.T.), Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (L.L., F.B. L.F., L.A., G.L., F.P., P.T.), University of Bologna; and Child Neuropsychiatry Unit (G.C.), University Hospital Verona, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Telethon foundation 13200
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Francesca Bisulli, MD, PhD
From IRCCS (L.L., F.B. L.V., F.P., P.T.), Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (L.L., F.B. L.F., L.A., G.L., F.P., P.T.), University of Bologna; and Child Neuropsychiatry Unit (G.C.), University Hospital Verona, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Italian Ministry of Health Young Investigators /euros 16.316; grant number: GR-2009-1574072, Coordinator of the Second Unit; 3 years
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Telethon foundation (grant GGP 13200 to P.T.)
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Lorenzo Ferri, MD
From IRCCS (L.L., F.B. L.V., F.P., P.T.), Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (L.L., F.B. L.F., L.A., G.L., F.P., P.T.), University of Bologna; and Child Neuropsychiatry Unit (G.C.), University Hospital Verona, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Gaetano Cantalupo, MD
From IRCCS (L.L., F.B. L.V., F.P., P.T.), Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (L.L., F.B. L.F., L.A., G.L., F.P., P.T.), University of Bologna; and Child Neuropsychiatry Unit (G.C.), University Hospital Verona, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Lara Alvisi, RPSGT
From IRCCS (L.L., F.B. L.V., F.P., P.T.), Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (L.L., F.B. L.F., L.A., G.L., F.P., P.T.), University of Bologna; and Child Neuropsychiatry Unit (G.C.), University Hospital Verona, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Luca Vignatelli, MD
From IRCCS (L.L., F.B. L.V., F.P., P.T.), Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (L.L., F.B. L.F., L.A., G.L., F.P., P.T.), University of Bologna; and Child Neuropsychiatry Unit (G.C.), University Hospital Verona, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Giuseppe Loddo, MD
From IRCCS (L.L., F.B. L.V., F.P., P.T.), Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (L.L., F.B. L.F., L.A., G.L., F.P., P.T.), University of Bologna; and Child Neuropsychiatry Unit (G.C.), University Hospital Verona, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Federica Provini, MD, PhD
From IRCCS (L.L., F.B. L.V., F.P., P.T.), Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (L.L., F.B. L.F., L.A., G.L., F.P., P.T.), University of Bologna; and Child Neuropsychiatry Unit (G.C.), University Hospital Verona, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Dr. Provini received honoraria for speaking engagements or consulting activities from Sanofi, Bial, Fidia,Vanda Pharmaceutical, Zambon and Eisai Japan.
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Paolo Tinuper, MD
From IRCCS (L.L., F.B. L.V., F.P., P.T.), Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (L.L., F.B. L.F., L.A., G.L., F.P., P.T.), University of Bologna; and Child Neuropsychiatry Unit (G.C.), University Hospital Verona, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
1) Dr Tinuper served on scientific advisory boards of UCB Pharma, EISAI,Cyberonics, LivaNova
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Dr Tinuper received sponsorisation for partecipation to International Congresses /
Editorial Boards:
1.
Dr Tinuper served as editorial advisory board member of Seizures
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Telethon Grant GGP 13200
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence Dr. Licchetta [email protected]
Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

Author Contributions

L.L.: study concept, interpretation of results, manuscript drafting. F.B.: study supervision, manuscript revision for intellectual content. F.L., G.C., L.A., L.V., G.L.: data analysis, interpretations of results. F.P., P.T.: manuscript revision for intellectual content.

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  1. Familial Adult Myoclonus Epilepsy: A Non-Coding Repeat Expansion Disorder of Cerebellar–Thalamic–Cortical Loop, Cells, 12, 12, (1617), (2023).https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12121617
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  2. White matter alterations in familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy type 1, Epilepsia, 63, 5, (1093-1103), (2022).https://doi.org/10.1111/epi.17213
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  3. Characteristics of visual sensitivity in familial cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy, Epileptic Disorders, 23, 2, (366-375), (2021).https://doi.org/10.1684/epd.2021.1278
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