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Abstract

Objective

To characterize the distribution and regional evolution of cervical cord atrophy in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in a multicenter dataset.

Methods

MRI and clinical evaluations were acquired from 179 controls and 435 patients (35 clinically isolated syndromes [CIS], 259 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis [RRMS], 99 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis [SPMS], and 42 primary progressive multiple sclerosis [PPMS]). Sixty-nine controls and 178 patients underwent a 1-year MRI and clinical follow-up. Patients were classified as clinically stable/worsened according to their disability change. Longitudinal changes of cord atrophy were investigated with linear mixed-effect models. Sample size calculations were performed using age-, sex- and site-adjusted annualized percentage normalized cord cross-sectional area (CSAn) changes.

Results

Baseline CSAn was lower in patients with MS vs controls (p < 0.001), but not different between controls and patients with CIS or between patients with early RRMS (disease duration ≤5 years) and patients with CIS. Patients with late RRMS (disease duration >5 years) showed significant cord atrophy vs patients with early RRMS (p = 0.02). Patients with progressive MS had decreased CSAn (p < 0.001) vs patients with RRMS. Atrophy was located between C1/C2 and C5 in patients with RRMS vs patients with CIS, and widespread along the cord in patients with progressive MS vs patients with RRMS, with an additional C5/C6 involvement in patients with SPMS vs patients with PPMS. At follow-up, CSAn decreased in all phenotypes (p < 0.001), except CIS. Cord atrophy rates were highest in patients with early RRMS and clinically worsened patients, who had a more widespread cord involvement than stable patients. The sample size per arm required to detect a 50% treatment effect was 118 for patients with early RRMS.

Conclusions

Cord atrophy increased in MS during 1 year, except for CIS. Faster atrophy contributed to explain clinical worsening.

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 93Number 20November 12, 2019
Pages: e1852-e1866
PubMed: 31611336

Publication History

Received: November 7, 2018
Accepted: June 4, 2019
Published online: October 14, 2019
Published in print: November 12, 2019

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Study Funding

Part of this work was supported by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, BMBF, German Competence Network Multiple Sclerosis (KKNMS), grants 01GI1601I and 01GI0914.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Serves as consultant to Biogen idec, Novartis, and ExceMed
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
Received speaker honoraria from Biogen Idec, Novartis, Genzyme, Sanofi-Aventis, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Merck Serono and Roche
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Italian Ministry of Health
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Paola Valsasina, MSc
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Speaker honoraria from ExceMED - Excellence in Medical Education
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Alessandro Meani, MSc
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Claudio Gobbi, MD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
I received financial support from Teva, Merck Serono, Biogen Idec, Bayer Schering, Genzyme, Roche and Novartis: these are unrelated to the submitted work.
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Chiara Zecca, MD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Speaker honoraria from Abbvie, Almirall, Biogen Idec, Celgene, Genzyme, Merck Serono, Novartis, Teva Pharma, Roche.
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Consultancies from Biogen Idec, Celgene, Genzyme, Merck Serono, Novartis, Roche.
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
Speaker honoraria from Abbvie, Almirall, Biogen Idec, Celgene, Genzyme, Merck Serono, Novartis, Teva Pharma, Roche.
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Research grants from the Swiss MS Society.
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Àlex Rovira, MD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
(1) Novartis, (2) Biogen, (3) Genzyme, (4) OLEA Medical, (5) Icometrix, (6) Synthetic MRI, (7) Bayer
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) Bayer, (2) Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, (3) Genzyme, (4) Bracco, (5) Merck-Serono, (6) Biogen Idec, (7) OLEA Medical, (8) Roche
Editorial Boards:
1.
Editorial boards of:(1) Am J Neuroradiol. Editorial board member, 2008 at present;(2) Neuroradiology. Editorial board member, 2006 at present;(3) European Radiology, 2016 at present
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
(1) Bayer, (2) Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, (3) Genzyme, (4) Bracco, (5) Merck-Serono, (6) Biogen Idec, (7) OLEA Medical, (8) Stendhal, (9) Roche
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Xavier Montalban, MD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
(1) Actelion, (2) Biogen, (3) Celgene, (4) Merck, (5) Novartis, (6) Roche, (7) Sanofi-Genzyme, (8) Teva Pharmaceutical, (9) NMSS, (10) MSIF and (11) EXCEMED.
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Travel to scientific meetings: (1) Biogen, (2) Celgene, (3) Merck, (4) Novartis, (5) Roche, (6) Sanofi-Genzyme, (7) Teva Pharmaceutical, (8) NMSS, (9) MSIF and (10) EXCEMED.
Editorial Boards:
1.
Member of
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
(1) Biogen, (2) Celgene, (3) Merck, (4) Novartis, (5) Roche, (6) Sanofi-Genzyme and (7) Teva Pharmaceutical.
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
(1) Vice-president, Multiple Sclerosis Foundation of Barcelona (FEM) and (2) Vice-president, Fundació Cemcat
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Hugh Kearney, PhD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Speaker honararium from Teva, Biogen and Roche.
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Olga Ciccarelli, MD, PhD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Teva, Novartis, Roche, Biogen, Merck Serono
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
As above Question 1
Editorial Boards:
1.
She is Associate Editor of Neurology and she serves on the Editorial Board of Multiple Sclerosis Journal.
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
See Question 1 above
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
EPSRC
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
She receives research support from the NIHR UCLH/UCL Biomedical Research Centre, NIHR, MS Society of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, National MS Society, Rosetrees Trust.
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
MS Society or Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Lucy Matthews, DPhil
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) Medical Research Council UK (G0901996) funded Clinical Research Training Fellowship. From May 2010-July 2012.
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Jacqueline Palace, MD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
All commercial (advisory boards last 2 years) 1) Merck Serono 2) Roche 3) MedDay 4) ARGENX 5) Chugai 6) Novartis Non-commercial 1) WIRMS)
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
All commercial (speakers/meetings honorarium last two years) 1) Merck Serono 2) Alexion 3) Novartis 4) ABIDE All commercial (conference support last two years) 5) Chugai 6) MedImmune 7) Alexion
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
ISIS Innovation Ltd. To protect for the use of metabolomics as a method to diagnose and stage disease in multiple sclerosis. Reference EP2812690B1
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
All commercial (advisory boards last two years) 1) Merck Serono 2) Roche 3) MedDay 4) Argenx 5) Chugai 6) Novartis
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
Please see 3 (speaker/meetings)
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
All commercial (support for research) 1) Biogen 2) Merck
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Grant for research: 1) Multiple Sclerosis Society 2) Guthry Jackson 3) Eugene Devic European Network 4) NIHR 5) ABIDE 6) Medical Research Council
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Antonio Gallo, MD, PhD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
(1) For the following pharmaceutical companies: Merck, Mylan, TEVA, Biogen, Roche, Sanofi
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) From the following pharmaceutical companies: Merck, Mylan, TEVA, Biogen, Roche, Sanofi
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Alvino Bisecco, MD, PhD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
1) Merck 2) Biogen 3) Roche 4) Genzyme
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
1) Merck 2) Biogen 3) Roche 4) Genzyme 5) Novartis
Editorial Boards:
1.
Frontiers in Neuroscience, Neurology and Psychiatry; Review Editor, 2018-today
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Achim Gass, MD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Novartis, Biogen, Merck Serono, Sanofi-Genzyme, Roche.
Editorial Boards:
1.
Assistant Editor J of Neurosciences. Editorial board member Journal of Neuroimaging.
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
Novartis, Biogen, Merck Serono, Sanofi-Genzyme, Roche.
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Philipp Eisele, MD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Dr. Eisele has received travel expenses from Bayer Health Care.
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Carsten Lukas, MD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
1) Scientific advisory board; BiogenIdec, commercial 2) Scientific advisory board; Novartis, commercial 3) Scientific advisory board; Merck, commercial 4) Scientific advisory board; Genzyme, commercial
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
1) Travel and speaker honoraria; commercial; Bayer Schering 2) Travel and speaker honoraria; commercial; Novartis 3) Travel and speaker honoraria; commercial; BiogenIdec 4) Travel and speaker honoraria; commercial; Teva 5) Travel and speaker honoraria; commercial; Genzyme 6) Speaker honoraria; commercial; Daiichi Sankyo 7) Travel honoraria; commercial; Stryker
Editorial Boards:
1.
Frontiers Neurology, Applied Neuroimaging; Review Editor, 2017 - no compensation
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
1) Federal Ministry of Education and Research of the Federal Republic of Germany (BMBF); 01GI1601I, PI, 3years
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
1) Novartis Foundation, endowed Professorship for MS Imaging,
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Barbara Bellenberg, PhD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) funding source: German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, BMBF, German Competence Network Multiple Sclerosis KKNMS (grant 01GI1601I and 01GI0914),researcher,2016-2019
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Frederik Barkhof, MD, PhD https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3543-3706
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Scientific consultant to Bayer, Novartis, Biogen, Merck, Roche, Janssen, TEVA, Genzyme, IXICO, Apitope, GeNeuro
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
Editorial board member for Brain, Multiple Sclerosis Journal, Neuroradiology, Radiology, Neurology
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Consultant for Synthon, Janssen, Novartis, Biogen, Roche, TEVA, Merck, Apitope
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
EuroPOND co-PI (H2020), AMYPAD coordinator (IMI), NIHR- UCLH biomedical research centre
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
Dutch foundation for MS Research - centre grant 2015-2018
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Hugo Vrenken, PhD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
1. MerckSerono, consulting fee 2017. All paid to institution.
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
(1) Novartis. Research grant 2015-2017. (2) Teva. Research grant 2015-2020. (3) MerckSerono. Research grants 2015-2016 and 2018-2020. All paid to institution.
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
1. Dutch MS Research Foundation, project grant no. 14- 876MS. All paid to institution.
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Spreaker honoraria from Biogen Idec, Novartis and ExecMED.
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Giancarlo Comi, MD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Received personal fees from Novartis, Teva, Sanofi Genzyme, Merck, Biogen, Roche, Almirall, Celgene, Forward Pharma, Medday and Excemed
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Received personal fees from Novartis, Teva, Sanofi Genzyme, Merck, Biogen, Roche, Almirall, Celgene, Forward Pharma, Medday and Excemed
Editorial Boards:
1.
1) Neurological Sciences, associate editor, 2011-
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Received personal fees from Novartis, Teva, Sanofi Genzyme, Merck, Biogen, Roche, Almirall, Celgene, Forward Pharma, Medday and Excemed
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Massimo Filippi, MD
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
Biogen Idec, Merck-Serono, Novartis, and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries
Editorial Boards:
1.
Editor-in-Chief (2012-present), Journal of Neurology; Associate Editor, Neurological Sciences (2016-present)
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
Biogen Idec, Merck-Serono, Novartis, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
Biogen Idec, Merck-Serono, Novartis, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
1) Commercial entity: Biogen-Idec 2) Commercial entity: Merck-Serono 3) Commercial entity: Novartis 4) Commercial entity: Teva Pharmaceutical Industries 5) Commercial entity: Roche
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
1) Italian Ministry of Health; grant number: GR-2013- 02357415; role: co-investigator; duration: September 2016- August 2019
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
1) Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla (FISM) 2) ARiSLA (Fondazione Italiana di Ricerca per la SLA)
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
for the MAGNIMS Study Group
From the Neuroimaging Research Unit (M.A.R., P.V., A.M., P.P., M.F.) and Neurology Unit (M.A.R., P.P., G.C., M.F.), Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology (C.G., C.Z.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital Lugano (EOC), Lugano; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (C.G., C.Z.), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Section of Neuroradiology and MRI Unit, Department of Radiology (A.R.), and Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; NMR Research Unit (H.K., O.C.), Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (L.M., J.P.), University of Oxford, UK; Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, and 3T MRI Center, (A.G., A.B.), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli,” Naples, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.G., P.E.), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (C.L., B.B.) and Institute of Neuroradiology (C.L., B.B.), St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., H.V.), MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, the Netherlands; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, UK; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (P.P., G.C., M.F.), Milan, Italy.

Notes

Correspondence Dr. Rocca [email protected]
Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.
Coinvestigators are listed in the appendix 2 at the end of the article.

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