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Abstract

Objective

To examine whether long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn3PUFA) levels modify the potential neurotoxic effects of particle matter with diameters <2.5 µm (PM2.5) exposure on normal-appearing brain volumes among dementia-free elderly women.

Methods

A total of 1,315 women (age 65–80 years) free of dementia were enrolled in an observational study between 1996 and 1999 and underwent structural brain MRI in 2005 to 2006. According to prospectively collected and geocoded participant addresses, we used a spatiotemporal model to estimate the 3-year average PM2.5 exposure before the MRI. We examined the joint associations of baseline LCn3PUFAs in red blood cells (RBCs) and PM2.5 exposure with brain volumes in generalized linear models.

Results

After adjustment for potential confounders, participants with higher levels of RBC LCn3PUFA had significantly greater volumes of white matter and hippocampus. For each interquartile increment (2.02%) in omega-3 index, the average volume was 5.03 cm3 (p < 0.01) greater in the white matter and 0.08 cm3 (p = 0.03) greater in the hippocampus. The associations with RBC docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid levels were similar. Higher LCn3PUFA attenuated the inverse associations between PM2.5 exposure and white matter volumes in the total brain and multimodal association areas (frontal, parietal, and temporal; all p for interaction <0.05), while the associations with other brain regions were not modified. Consistent results were found for dietary intakes of LCn3PUFAs and nonfried fish.

Conclusions

Findings from this prospective cohort study among elderly women suggest that the benefits of LCn3PUFAs on brain aging may include the protection against potential adverse effects of air pollution on white matter volumes.

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 95Number 8August 25, 2020
Pages: e995-e1007
PubMed: 32669395

Publication History

Received: June 5, 2019
Accepted: February 20, 2020
Published online: July 15, 2020
Published in print: August 25, 2020

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Disclosure

C. Chen and P. Xun are supported by NIH grant (RF1AG056111). J. Kaufman, K. Hayden, M. Espeland, E. Whitsel, M. Serre, W. Vizuete, T. Orchard, and W. Harris report no disclosures. X. Wang is supported by NIH grant (R01ES025888). H. Chui reports no disclosure. J. Chen is supported by NIH grants (R01ES025888, P01AG055367, P30AG066530, and P30ES007048). K. He is supported by NIH grant (RF1AG056111). Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures.

Study Funding

The WHI program is funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH, US Department of Health and Human Services through contracts HHSN268201100046C, HHSN268201100001C, HHSN268201100002C, HHSN268201100003C, HHSN268201100004C, and HHSN271201100004C. WHIMS was funded by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc, St. Davids, PA, and Wake Forest University. This study was supported by the NIH R01AG033078 and RF1AG054068. Drs. J.-C. Chen and Wang were in part supported by R01ES025888. Drs. C. Chen, Xun, and He were partially supported by NIH RF1AG056111.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Cheng Chen, PhD
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) NIH, RF1AG056111, investigator, 2017-2022
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
1. NIH, RF1AG056111, Co-I, 2017-2022 2. NIH, RF1AG054068, Biostatistician, 2016-2021 3. NIH, R21HD086451, Sub-contractor PI, 2016-2018 4. NIH, R01ES021735, Biostatistician, 2012-2017 5. RWJF, 7273, Biostatistics consultant, 2014-2016
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
(1) SPOUSE: Merck (2) SPOUSE: X-Vax (3) SPOUSE: Gilead Sciences
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
(1) SPOUSE: Innovative Molecules (2) Amarin
Editorial Boards:
1.
(1) Environmental Health Perspectives, Editor-in-Chief, 2020-present (2) American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, editorial board 2007-present (3) SPOUSE: STI, editorial board member (4) SPOUSE: STD, editorial board member (5) SPOUSE: Journal of Infectious Diseases, associate editor (6) SPOUSE: Journal Watch Women's Health, associate editor
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
(1) SPOUSE: UpToDate (Wolters Kluwer), continuous, ongoing (2) SPOUSE: Journal Watch Women's Health (Massachusetts Medical Society), continuous, ongoing
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
(1) SPOUSE: AiCuris
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
(1) SPOUSE is funded as investigator in a clinical trial for Sanofi Pasteur
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
National Institutes of Health US Environmental Protection Agency US Department of Defense
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Kathleen M. Hayden, PhD
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
1)Alzheimer's & Dementia, Senior Editor 2007-present 2)Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, Executive Editor 2015-present 3)Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, Executive Editor 2015-present
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NIH, P30-AG049638 NIH, R01-AG058571 NIH, R01-AG058969 NIH, R01-AG060502 NIH, R01-AG055426 HHSN268201600004C HHSN271201700002C NIH, R01-AG064440
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Mark A. Espeland, PhD
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Boehringer-Ingelheim -- Advisory Board
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
The Journals of Gerontology Medical Sciences, Statistical Editor, 2012 through present
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
Wake Forest School of Medicine
Consultancies:
1.
Non-Profit entity: I serve on several monitoring boards for NIH studies.
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
1RF1AG054068 (Chen) 07/01/2017-06/30/2021 NIA Alzheimer's Disease & Related Dementias: Geography, Environments, and Mechanisms The long-term goal of this project is to better understand the neuropsychological processes, environmental determinants, and mechanistic pathways leading to geographic disparities in the risk of late- onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) of vulnerable populations. Role: Co-Principal Investigator 1R21AG054955-01 (Hugenschmidt) 05/01/2018-04/30/2020 NIH The Interaction Between Diabetes and Estradiol on Human Brain Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women This study uses new methods to investigate a biological hypothesis that may explain recent findings that diabetes seems to increase the risk of dementia more in women than in men Role: Co-Principal Investigator 1R01AG058571 (Espeland) 07/01/2018-03/31/2022 NIA Long-Term Impact of Random Assisgnment to Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias: The Action for Health in Diabetes ADRD Study (Look AHEAD-MIND) Type 2 diabetes and obesity in combination nearly double one's risk for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. We will examine the legacy of a successful 10-year behavioral intervention designed to induce and maintain weight loss on the cognitive health of older individuals. We collect additional cognitive assessments; adjudicate cognitive status in large, well-characterized cohort; and conduct laboratory analyses of existing blood specimens. Role: Principal Investigator POINTER-19-611541 (Baker) Alzheimer’s Association 08/01/2018-07/31/2023 U.S. Study to Protect Through a Lifestyle Intervention to Reduce Risk To test whether an intensive multi-domain lifestyle intervention can protect cognitive function in older Americans who are at increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia. Role: Co-Principal Investigator 1P30AG049638-01A1 (Craft) 09/01/2016-06/30/2021 NIA Core C: Data Management and Statistical Core The mission of Data Management and Statistical (DMS) Core is to promote excellence in the Wake Forest ADCC by providing outstanding data management, biomedical computing, and analytical support to ADCC investigators and affiliates. Role: Co-Principal Investigator R01 HL127341 (Wing) 09/01/2015 – 12/31/2019 NHLBI Preventing Weight Gain in Young Adults Extension (SNAP-E) This represents a subcontract with Miriam Hospital. SNAP- E will follow participants of the Study of Novel Approaches to Weigh Gain Prevention (SNAP) for an additional 4 years to determine if the benefits of those interventions can be maintained with only minimal intervention and thus provide a public health approach to the problem of weight gain in young adults. Role: Co-Principal Investigator UO1 DK027136 (Espeland) 02/01/2016 – 01/31/2021 NIDDK 16/16 Action for Health in Diabetes Extension Study Biostatistics Research Center Weight loss is recommended for overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes, but the long-term effects of such approaches on the issues of greatest concern to older individuals --including mortality, health care utilization and costs, diabetic complications, quality of life, and frailty -- remain untested. The Look AHEAD-E will follow approximately 3800 of these individuals for an additional 4.5 years to determine whether random assignment to an intensive lifestyle intervention focused on weight loss achieved through healthy eating and increased physical activity relative to a control group leads to improved long-term health in later life. Role: Principal Investigator 1R01 AG050657-01A1 (Baker) 06/01/2016 – 02/28/2021 NIH Cocoa Supplement and Multivitamin Outcome Study-Mind (COSMOS-Mind) The proposed study, COSMOS-Mind, will enroll 2,000 women and men from the parent trial (>65 years old), and conduct standardized and validated cognitive assessments via telephone at baseline (before randomization) and annually over 3 years of follow-up to establish whether daily use of cocoa flavanols with or without a multivitamin can protect cognitive function and reduce incidence of cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease. Role: Co-Principal Investigator
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Eric A. Whitsel, MD
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1) NHLBI, R01-HL148565, MPI, last two years (2) NIEHS/NIA, R01-ES029509, UNC PI, last two years (3) NIEHS, R01-ES027696, UNC PI, last two years (4) NHLBI, HHSN268201700001I, Co-I, last two years (5) NHLBI, NHLBI-WH-11-10, UNC PI, last two years (6) NIEHS, R01-ES025791, UNC PI, last two years (7) NIEHS, R01-ES025888, UNC PI, last two years (8) NICHD, P01-HD031921, Biology Project PI, last two years (9) NHLBI, R01-HL116900, Co-I, last two years (10) NIEHS, R01-ES020836, PI, last two years
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
(1) ALS Foundation
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Marc L. Serre, PhD
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
William Vizuete, PhD
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Tonya Orchard, PhD
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NIH, 5R01CA189947, PI, 2015-2020
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
William S. Harris, PhD
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Reckitt Benckiser SAB: 2019-present
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
OmegaQuant Analytics, LLC employment
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
My laboratory offers the RBC omega-3 fatty acid test used in this study. Stock/Stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials: Stockholder in Omegaquant Analytics, LLC.
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Xinhui Wang, PhD
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Helena C. Chui, MD
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
Allo IM clinical study funded by NIA
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
P50-AG05142 P01-G052350 R01-AG058162 R01-AG055770 R01-AG054434 R01-ES025888 R01-AG054068 R01 AG054442
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Jiu-Chiuan Chen, MD, ScD
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
1. Environmental Determinants of Pathological Brain Aging in WHI Memory Studies R01ES025888 Role: Principal Investigator (MPI: Chen & Kaufman), 2016-2021 2. Alzheimer’s Disease & Related Dementias: Geography, Environments & Mechanisms RF1AG054068-01 Role: Principal Investigator, 2016-2021 3. Urban Air Pollution and Alzheimer's Disease: Risk, Heterogeneity, and Mechanisms P01AG055367-01A1 Role: Principal Investigator-Overall Program (MPI: Finch & Chen), 2018-2023 4. Regional Neurotoxicity & Early Biomarkers of Air Pollution Effects on Brain Aging R21AG051113 NIA Role: Principal Investigator (10%; MPI: Casanova & Chen), 2015-2018 5. Environmental determinants of cognitive aging R01AG033078 NIA Role: Principal Investigator, 2011-2017
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Ka He, MD, ScD
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Epidemiology (C.C., K.H.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.X.), School of Public Health–Bloomington, Indiana University; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (J.D.K.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology (J.D.K.), School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy (K.M.H.) and Department of Biostatistics and Data Science (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Epidemiology (E.A.W.) and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (M.L.S., W.V.), Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Department of Medicine (E.A.W.), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Human Sciences (T.O.), Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Internal Medicine (W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; OmegaQuant Analytics LLC (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, SD; and Department of Neurology (X.W., H.C.C., J.-C.C.) and Department of Preventive Medicine (J.-C.C.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
1. NIH, RF1AG056111, PI, 2017-2022 2. NIH, R01DK116603, PI, 2019-2020 2. NIH, R01ES021735, PI, 2012-2017 3. NIH, UL1TR001108, Co-I, 2013–2018 4. NIH, RF1AG054068, Co-I, 2016-2021 5. NSFC, 81573140, PI, 2016-2019
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence Dr. Chen [email protected] or Dr. He [email protected]
Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

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