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January 1, 1999

Apolipoprotein E-ε4 genotype predicts a poor outcome in survivors of traumatic brain injury

January 1, 1999 issue
52 (2) 244

Abstract

Objective: To determine the ability of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes to predict days of unconsciousness and a suboptimal functional outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors.
Background: TBI is known to be associated with neuropsychological deficits and functional disability. Recent evidence indicates that APOE plays a pivotal role in CNS response to injury.
Methods: In this prospective study the authors determined the APOE genotypes and tested their ability to predict days of unconsciousness and functional outcome after at least 6 months in 69 survivors of TBI. A good functional outcome was defined as no dysarthria, behavioral abnormalities, or dysphasia; no severe cognitive abnormalities; and the ability to live independently.
Results: The odds ratio of more than 7 days of unconsciousness was 5.69 in those with the APOE-ε4 allele compared with those without the ε4 allele (95% CI, 1.69 to 20.0; p = 0.001). Only 1 of 27 subjects (3.7%) with the ε4 allele had a good functional outcome compared with 13 of 42 (31.0%) of those without the ε4 allele (p = 0.006). The OR of a suboptimal outcome (fair or unfavorable) was 13.93 for those with the ε4 allele compared with those without the allele after controlling for age and time of unconsciousness (95% CI, 1.45 to 133.97; p = 0.02).
Conclusion: The results demonstrate a strong association between the APOE-ε4 allele and a poor clinical outcome, implying genetic susceptibility to the effect of brain injury. Additional studies of TBI patients are warranted to confirm their findings.

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Information & Authors

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Published In

Neurology®
Volume 52Number 2January 1, 1999
Pages: 244
PubMed: 9932938

Publication History

Published online: January 1, 1999
Published in print: January 1, 1999

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Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

G. Friedman, MD
From the Division of MedicineGeriatric Unit (Drs. Friedman, Grinblatt, and Ben Yehuda, and S. Babaey), and the Department of Rehabilitation (Drs. Shochina and Tsenter), Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem; the Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital (Drs. Groswasser and Sazbon), Ra’anana; and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (Dr. Froom), Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
P. Froom, MD, MOccH
From the Division of MedicineGeriatric Unit (Drs. Friedman, Grinblatt, and Ben Yehuda, and S. Babaey), and the Department of Rehabilitation (Drs. Shochina and Tsenter), Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem; the Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital (Drs. Groswasser and Sazbon), Ra’anana; and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (Dr. Froom), Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
L. Sazbon, MD
From the Division of MedicineGeriatric Unit (Drs. Friedman, Grinblatt, and Ben Yehuda, and S. Babaey), and the Department of Rehabilitation (Drs. Shochina and Tsenter), Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem; the Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital (Drs. Groswasser and Sazbon), Ra’anana; and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (Dr. Froom), Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
I. Grinblatt, MD
From the Division of MedicineGeriatric Unit (Drs. Friedman, Grinblatt, and Ben Yehuda, and S. Babaey), and the Department of Rehabilitation (Drs. Shochina and Tsenter), Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem; the Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital (Drs. Groswasser and Sazbon), Ra’anana; and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (Dr. Froom), Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
M. Shochina, MD
From the Division of MedicineGeriatric Unit (Drs. Friedman, Grinblatt, and Ben Yehuda, and S. Babaey), and the Department of Rehabilitation (Drs. Shochina and Tsenter), Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem; the Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital (Drs. Groswasser and Sazbon), Ra’anana; and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (Dr. Froom), Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
J. Tsenter, MD
From the Division of MedicineGeriatric Unit (Drs. Friedman, Grinblatt, and Ben Yehuda, and S. Babaey), and the Department of Rehabilitation (Drs. Shochina and Tsenter), Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem; the Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital (Drs. Groswasser and Sazbon), Ra’anana; and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (Dr. Froom), Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
S. Babaey, BA
From the Division of MedicineGeriatric Unit (Drs. Friedman, Grinblatt, and Ben Yehuda, and S. Babaey), and the Department of Rehabilitation (Drs. Shochina and Tsenter), Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem; the Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital (Drs. Groswasser and Sazbon), Ra’anana; and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (Dr. Froom), Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
A. Ben Yehuda, MD
From the Division of MedicineGeriatric Unit (Drs. Friedman, Grinblatt, and Ben Yehuda, and S. Babaey), and the Department of Rehabilitation (Drs. Shochina and Tsenter), Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem; the Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital (Drs. Groswasser and Sazbon), Ra’anana; and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (Dr. Froom), Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
Z. Groswasser, MD, MPH
From the Division of MedicineGeriatric Unit (Drs. Friedman, Grinblatt, and Ben Yehuda, and S. Babaey), and the Department of Rehabilitation (Drs. Shochina and Tsenter), Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem; the Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital (Drs. Groswasser and Sazbon), Ra’anana; and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (Dr. Froom), Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Notes

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Zeev Groswasser, Department of Brain Injury Rehabilitation, Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital, 278 Achuza Street, Ra’anana 43100, Israel.

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