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Abstract

Objective: The San Antonio Lupus Study of Neuropsychiatric Disease is a longitudinal study designed to characterize the spectrum of and important risk factors for specific neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) syndromes.
Methods: Subjects must meet criteria for SLE and must be at least 18 years of age. A standardized medical history, neurologic, rheumatologic, and psychiatric examinations, computerized neuropsychological evaluation, and serologic testing are performed.
Results: This report is based on the first 128 subjects (120 women and 8 men) who completed the initial study visit. Data from this initial study visit were evaluated for the prevalence of NPSLE using the American College of Rheumatology case definitions for 19 NPSLE syndromes. One or more NPSLE syndromes were present in 80% of subjects: cerebrovascular disease (2, 2%; ischemic stroke); headaches (73, 57%); mononeuropathy (9, 8%; median 8, ulnar 1); movement disorder (1, 1%; chorea); neuropathy, cranial (2, 2%; trigeminal); polyneuropathy (29, 22%; sensorimotor); seizures (21, 16%; partial); anxiety disorder (27, 24%); major depressive-like episode (37, 28%); mood disorder with depressive features (21, 19%); mood disorder with manic features (3, 3%); mood disorder with mixed features (1, 1%); psychosis (6, 5%). In a subset of 67 patients who received standardized neuropsychological testing, 21% had normal results. In the remainder, the following levels of impairment were seen: 43% mild, 30% moderate, and 6% severe.
Conclusions: The prevalence of NPSLE was high in this cohort of unselected patients with SLE. Headaches, cognitive dysfunction, and psychiatric disorders were the most common NPSLE syndromes seen. These results will be easily comparable to other studies also using standardized diagnostic criteria. However, the lack of ethnicity and language-matched normative neuropsychological data may make comparisons of cognitive dysfunction in SLE populations difficult.

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Information & Authors

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Published In

Neurology®
Volume 58Number 8April 23, 2002
Pages: 1214-1220
PubMed: 11971089

Publication History

Received: October 24, 2001
Accepted: December 24, 2001
Published online: April 23, 2002
Published in print: April 23, 2002

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Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

R. L. Brey, MD
From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (Drs. Brey, Navarrete, and Hermosillo–Romo, and A. Saklad, C. Stallworth, C. Valdez, C. Rhine, and P. Padilla) and Clinical Immunology (Drs. Escalante and del Rincón); Audie L. Murphy Veterans Association Hospital (Dr. Holliday), San Antonio, TX; Willford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center (Dr. Gronseth and D. McGlasson), Lackland Air Force Base, TX.
S. L. Holliday, PhD
From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (Drs. Brey, Navarrete, and Hermosillo–Romo, and A. Saklad, C. Stallworth, C. Valdez, C. Rhine, and P. Padilla) and Clinical Immunology (Drs. Escalante and del Rincón); Audie L. Murphy Veterans Association Hospital (Dr. Holliday), San Antonio, TX; Willford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center (Dr. Gronseth and D. McGlasson), Lackland Air Force Base, TX.
A. R. Saklad, MS
From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (Drs. Brey, Navarrete, and Hermosillo–Romo, and A. Saklad, C. Stallworth, C. Valdez, C. Rhine, and P. Padilla) and Clinical Immunology (Drs. Escalante and del Rincón); Audie L. Murphy Veterans Association Hospital (Dr. Holliday), San Antonio, TX; Willford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center (Dr. Gronseth and D. McGlasson), Lackland Air Force Base, TX.
M. G. Navarrete, PhD
From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (Drs. Brey, Navarrete, and Hermosillo–Romo, and A. Saklad, C. Stallworth, C. Valdez, C. Rhine, and P. Padilla) and Clinical Immunology (Drs. Escalante and del Rincón); Audie L. Murphy Veterans Association Hospital (Dr. Holliday), San Antonio, TX; Willford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center (Dr. Gronseth and D. McGlasson), Lackland Air Force Base, TX.
D. Hermosillo–Romo, PhD
From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (Drs. Brey, Navarrete, and Hermosillo–Romo, and A. Saklad, C. Stallworth, C. Valdez, C. Rhine, and P. Padilla) and Clinical Immunology (Drs. Escalante and del Rincón); Audie L. Murphy Veterans Association Hospital (Dr. Holliday), San Antonio, TX; Willford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center (Dr. Gronseth and D. McGlasson), Lackland Air Force Base, TX.
C. L. Stallworth, BS
From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (Drs. Brey, Navarrete, and Hermosillo–Romo, and A. Saklad, C. Stallworth, C. Valdez, C. Rhine, and P. Padilla) and Clinical Immunology (Drs. Escalante and del Rincón); Audie L. Murphy Veterans Association Hospital (Dr. Holliday), San Antonio, TX; Willford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center (Dr. Gronseth and D. McGlasson), Lackland Air Force Base, TX.
C. R. Valdez, BS
From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (Drs. Brey, Navarrete, and Hermosillo–Romo, and A. Saklad, C. Stallworth, C. Valdez, C. Rhine, and P. Padilla) and Clinical Immunology (Drs. Escalante and del Rincón); Audie L. Murphy Veterans Association Hospital (Dr. Holliday), San Antonio, TX; Willford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center (Dr. Gronseth and D. McGlasson), Lackland Air Force Base, TX.
A. Escalante, MD
From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (Drs. Brey, Navarrete, and Hermosillo–Romo, and A. Saklad, C. Stallworth, C. Valdez, C. Rhine, and P. Padilla) and Clinical Immunology (Drs. Escalante and del Rincón); Audie L. Murphy Veterans Association Hospital (Dr. Holliday), San Antonio, TX; Willford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center (Dr. Gronseth and D. McGlasson), Lackland Air Force Base, TX.
I. del Rincón, MD
From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (Drs. Brey, Navarrete, and Hermosillo–Romo, and A. Saklad, C. Stallworth, C. Valdez, C. Rhine, and P. Padilla) and Clinical Immunology (Drs. Escalante and del Rincón); Audie L. Murphy Veterans Association Hospital (Dr. Holliday), San Antonio, TX; Willford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center (Dr. Gronseth and D. McGlasson), Lackland Air Force Base, TX.
G. Gronseth, MD
From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (Drs. Brey, Navarrete, and Hermosillo–Romo, and A. Saklad, C. Stallworth, C. Valdez, C. Rhine, and P. Padilla) and Clinical Immunology (Drs. Escalante and del Rincón); Audie L. Murphy Veterans Association Hospital (Dr. Holliday), San Antonio, TX; Willford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center (Dr. Gronseth and D. McGlasson), Lackland Air Force Base, TX.
C. B. Rhine, BS
From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (Drs. Brey, Navarrete, and Hermosillo–Romo, and A. Saklad, C. Stallworth, C. Valdez, C. Rhine, and P. Padilla) and Clinical Immunology (Drs. Escalante and del Rincón); Audie L. Murphy Veterans Association Hospital (Dr. Holliday), San Antonio, TX; Willford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center (Dr. Gronseth and D. McGlasson), Lackland Air Force Base, TX.
P. Padilla, BS
From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (Drs. Brey, Navarrete, and Hermosillo–Romo, and A. Saklad, C. Stallworth, C. Valdez, C. Rhine, and P. Padilla) and Clinical Immunology (Drs. Escalante and del Rincón); Audie L. Murphy Veterans Association Hospital (Dr. Holliday), San Antonio, TX; Willford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center (Dr. Gronseth and D. McGlasson), Lackland Air Force Base, TX.
D. McGlasson, MA
From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Neurology (Drs. Brey, Navarrete, and Hermosillo–Romo, and A. Saklad, C. Stallworth, C. Valdez, C. Rhine, and P. Padilla) and Clinical Immunology (Drs. Escalante and del Rincón); Audie L. Murphy Veterans Association Hospital (Dr. Holliday), San Antonio, TX; Willford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center (Dr. Gronseth and D. McGlasson), Lackland Air Force Base, TX.

Notes

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Robin L. Brey, Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive #7883, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900; e-mail: [email protected]

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