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Abstract

Objective:

In this meta-analysis, we sought to evaluate the association between prehypertension and the risk of stroke.

Methods:

We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases for studies with data on prehypertension and stroke. Two independent reviewers assessed the reports and extracted data. Prospective studies were included if they reported multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between stroke and prehypertension or its 2 subranges (low-range prehypertension: 120–129/80–84 mm Hg; high-range prehypertension: 130–139/85–89 mm Hg). We conducted subgroup analyses according to blood pressure ranges, stroke type, endpoint, age, sex, ethnicity, and study characteristics.

Results:

Pooled data included the results of 762,393 participants from 19 prospective cohort studies. Prehypertension increased the risk of stroke (RR 1.66; 95% CI 1.51–1.81) compared with optimal blood pressure (<120/80 mm Hg). In the secondary outcome analyses, even low-range prehypertension increased the risk of stroke (RR 1.44; 95% CI 1.27–1.63), and the risk was greater for high-range prehypertension (RR 1.95; 95% CI 1.73–2.21). The RR was higher with high-range than with low-range prehypertension (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in any of the subgroup analyses (all p > 0.05).

Conclusions:

After adjusting for multiple cardiovascular risk factors, prehypertension is associated with stroke morbidity. Although the increased risk is largely driven by high-range prehypertension, the risk is also increased in people with low-range prehypertension.

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Supplementary Material

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Neurology®
Volume 82Number 13April 1, 2014
Pages: 1153-1161
PubMed: 24623843

Publication History

Received: August 30, 2013
Accepted: December 26, 2013
Published online: March 12, 2014
Published in print: April 1, 2014

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Disclosure

Y. Huang has received research support from Health Ministry of Guangdong province (B2011310, A2012663, B2012343) and Scientific Research Fund of Foshan, Guangdong, China (201208210). X. Cai has received research support from Health Ministry of Guangdong province (B2012343) and Scientific Research Fund of Foshan, Guangdong, China (201208227). Y. Li and L. Su report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. W. Mai has received research support from the Cardiovascular Medicine Research Fund of Guangdong, China (2009X20, 2011X38). S. Wang, Y. Hu, and Y. Wu report no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. Dr. Xu has received research support from the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (8151051501000048), Guangdong Provincial Science and Technology projects (2009B030801204, 2012B031800184), Guangzhou City Science and Technology projects (2010YC181), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81270320). Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures.

Study Funding

No targeted funding reported.

Authors

Affiliations & Disclosures

Yuli Huang, MD
From the Department of Cardiology (Y.H., Y.L., L.S., S.W., D.X.), Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou; Clinical Medicine Research Institute (X.C., Y.H., Y.W.), The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Foshan; and Department of Cardiology (W.M.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1)Research support from Health Ministry of Guangdong province, China, No: B2011310, not relevant to this study, years: 2011-2013 (2) Research support from Health Ministry of Guangdong province, China, No: A2012663, not relevant to this study, years: 2012-2014 (3) Scientific Research Fund of Foshan, Guangdong, China, No:201208210, not relevant to this study, years: 2012-2014
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Xiaoyan Cai, MD
From the Department of Cardiology (Y.H., Y.L., L.S., S.W., D.X.), Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou; Clinical Medicine Research Institute (X.C., Y.H., Y.W.), The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Foshan; and Department of Cardiology (W.M.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1)Research support from Health Ministry of Guangdong province, China, No: B2012343, not relevant to this study, years: 2012-2014 (2) Sientific Research Fund of Foshan, Guangdong, China, No: 201208227, not relevant to this study, years: 2012-2014
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Yingying Li, MD
From the Department of Cardiology (Y.H., Y.L., L.S., S.W., D.X.), Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou; Clinical Medicine Research Institute (X.C., Y.H., Y.W.), The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Foshan; and Department of Cardiology (W.M.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Liang Su, MD
From the Department of Cardiology (Y.H., Y.L., L.S., S.W., D.X.), Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou; Clinical Medicine Research Institute (X.C., Y.H., Y.W.), The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Foshan; and Department of Cardiology (W.M.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Weiyi Mai, MD, PhD
From the Department of Cardiology (Y.H., Y.L., L.S., S.W., D.X.), Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou; Clinical Medicine Research Institute (X.C., Y.H., Y.W.), The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Foshan; and Department of Cardiology (W.M.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
Cardiovascular Medicine Research Fund of Guangdong, China, No: 2009X20, 2011X38, not relevant to this study, years: 2009-2013
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Sheng Wang, MD
From the Department of Cardiology (Y.H., Y.L., L.S., S.W., D.X.), Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou; Clinical Medicine Research Institute (X.C., Y.H., Y.W.), The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Foshan; and Department of Cardiology (W.M.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Yunzhao Hu, MD
From the Department of Cardiology (Y.H., Y.L., L.S., S.W., D.X.), Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou; Clinical Medicine Research Institute (X.C., Y.H., Y.W.), The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Foshan; and Department of Cardiology (W.M.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Yanxian Wu, MD
From the Department of Cardiology (Y.H., Y.L., L.S., S.W., D.X.), Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou; Clinical Medicine Research Institute (X.C., Y.H., Y.W.), The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Foshan; and Department of Cardiology (W.M.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE
Dingli Xu, MD
From the Department of Cardiology (Y.H., Y.L., L.S., S.W., D.X.), Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou; Clinical Medicine Research Institute (X.C., Y.H., Y.W.), The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Foshan; and Department of Cardiology (W.M.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Disclosure
Scientific Advisory Boards:
1.
NONE
Gifts:
1.
NONE
Funding for Travel or Speaker Honoraria:
1.
NONE
Editorial Boards:
1.
NONE
Patents:
1.
NONE
Publishing Royalties:
1.
NONE
Employment, Commercial Entity:
1.
NONE
Consultancies:
1.
NONE
Speakers' Bureaus:
1.
NONE
Other Activities:
1.
NONE
Clinical Procedures or Imaging Studies:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Commercial Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Government Entities:
1.
(1)Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, No.8151051501000048, not relevant to this study, years: 2010-2012 (2) Guangdong Provincial Science and Technology projects, No.2009B030801204, No.2012B031800184, not relevant to this study, years: 2010-2012 (3) Guangzhou City Science and Technology projects, No.2010YC181, not relevant to this study, years: 2011-2013 (4) National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.81270320, not relevant to this study, years: 2013-2016
Research Support, Academic Entities:
1.
NONE
Research Support, Foundations and Societies:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options/board of Directors Compensation:
1.
NONE
License Fee Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Royalty Payments, Technology or Inventions:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Research Sponsor:
1.
NONE
Stock/stock Options, Medical Equipment & Materials:
1.
NONE
Legal Proceedings:
1.
NONE

Notes

Correspondence to Prof. Xu: [email protected]
Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

Author Contributions

Y.H. and D.X. were responsible for the initial plan, study design, conducting the study, data interpretation, and manuscript drafting. Y.H., X.C., and Y.L. were responsible for statistical analysis. X.C., S.W., Y.W., and L.S. were responsible for data collection, extraction, and interpretation. Y.H., X.C., and W.M. were responsible for data interpretation and manuscript drafting. D.X. and Y.H. are guarantors.

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  9. Association of blood pressure with brain structure in youth with and without bipolar disorder, Journal of Affective Disorders, 299, (666-674), (2022).https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.12.028
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  11. See more
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